JFCMV  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2014
Precise Positioning of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Systems
Abstract: Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) currently possess a high power-to-weight ratio, a high power-to-volume ratio, and a high degree of safety. They have therefore been applied to many power assist devices and positioning mechanisms such as bionic robots, welfare devices, and parallel manipulators. However, the significant nonlinear characteristics of PAM mechanisms limit their positioning accuracies. The accuracies are generally lower than 5 μm, which preclude the PAM from precision systems. Nevertheless, enhancing the positioning accuracy is desired to extend the application fields of PAMs. This study aims to clarify a practical controller design method to achieve the precise positioning of PAM systems. As the first step of this research, a linear motion mechanism with a pair of McKibben PAMs was constructed and a conventional dynamic model for this system is introduced. The dynamic model is used to explain the basic characteristics of the PAM mechanism and discuss the necessary characteristics for precise positioning. Then open-loop step and sinusoidal responses of the PAM mechanism were examined by experimental and simulated results. Next, for precise positioning, the practical controller design procedure is discussed and determined based on the measured open-loop responses. The proposed controller design procedure can be easily implemented into PAM mechanisms without an exact dynamic model. The positioning performance of such a system was experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that although the positioning accuracy depends on the target position, the positioning error is lower than 1 μm even in the worst case and the positioning resolution can be set to 0.5 μm.
Cite this paper: Wang, S. , Sato, K. and Kagawa, T. (2014) Precise Positioning of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Systems. Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, 2, 138-153. doi: 10.4236/jfcmv.2014.24016.

[1]   Reynolds, D.B., Repperger, D.W., Phillips, C.A. and Bandry, G. (2003) Modeling the Dynamic Characteristics of Pneumatic Muscle. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 31, 310-317.

[2]   Jouppila, V., Gadsden, S.A. and Ellman, A. (2014) Experimental Comparisons of Sliding Mode Controlled Pneumatic Muscle and Cylinder Actuators. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 136, Article ID: 044503.

[3]   Hosoda, K., Takuma, T., Nakamoto, A. and Hayashi, S. (2008) Biped Robot Design Powered by Antagonistic Pneumatic Actuators for Multi-Modal Locomotion. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 56, 46-53.

[4]   Narioka, K. and Hosoda, K. (2011) Motor Development of a Pneumatic Musculoskeletal Infant Robot. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, 9-13 May 2011, 963-968.

[5]   Balasubramanian, S., Ward, J., Sugar, T. and He, J. (2007) Characterization of the Dynamic Properties of PneumaticMuscle Actuators. Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Noordwijk, 12-15 June 2007, 764-770.

[6]   Wong, Z., Teng, C. and Chong, Y. (2012) Power Assisted Pnumatic-Based Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthosis for Rehabilitation. Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Langkawi, 17-19 December 2012, 300-304.

[7]   Hussain, S., Xie, S.Q. and Jamwal, P.K. (2013) Robust Nonlinear Control of an Intrinsically Compliant Robotic Gait Training Orthosis. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 43, 655-665.

[8]   Zhu, X., Tao, G., Yao, B. and Cao, J. (2008) Adaptive Robust Posture Control of a Parallel Manipulator Driven by Pneumatic Muscles. Automatica, 44, 2248-2257.

[9]   Zhu, X., Tao, G., Yao, B. and Cao, J. (2009) Integrated Direct/Indirect Adaptive Robust Posture Trajectory Tracking Control of a Parallel Manipulator Driven by Pneumatic Muscles. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 17, 576-588.

[10]   Wickramatunge, K.C. and Leephakpreeda, T. (2010) Study on Mechanical Behaviors of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle. International Journal of Engineering Science, 48, 188-198.

[11]   Minh, T.V., Kamers, B., Ramon, H. and Brussel, H.V. (2012) Modeling and Control of a Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulator Joint-Part I: Modeling of a Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulator Joint with Accounting for Creep Effect. Mechatronics, 22, 923-933.

[12]   Vo-Minh, T., Tjahjowidodo, T., Ramon, H. and Brussel, H.V. (2011) A New Approach to Modeling Hysteresis in a Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Using the Maxwell-Slip Model. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 16, 177-186.

[13]   Raoufi, C., Goldenberg, A.A. and Kucharczyk, W. (2008) A New Hydraulically/Pneumatically Actuated MR-Compatible Robot for MRI-Guided Neurosurgery. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai, 16-18 May 2008, 2232-3335.

[14]   Pujana-Arrese, A., Mendizabal, A., Arenas, J., Prestamero, R. and Landaluze, J. (2010) Modelling in Modelica and Position Control of a 1-DoF Set-Up Poweredby Pneumatic Muscles. Mechatronics, 20, 535-552.

[15]   Li, X., He, F., Xia, H. and Ting, G. (2012) Implicit Generalized Predictive Control of Hip-Joint Rehabilitation Training Device Driven by Pneumatic Muscle Actuator. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 138-139, 273-278.

[16]   Andrikopoulos, G., Nikolakopoulos, G. and Manesis, S. (2013) Non-Linear Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles. Proceeding of the 21st Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation, Chania, 25-28 June 2013, 729-734.

[17]   Tondu, B. and Lopez, P. (2000) Modeling and Control of McKibben Artificial Muscle Robot Actuators. IEEE Control Systems, 20, 15-38.

[18]   Xing, K., Huang, J., Wang, Y., Wu, J., Xu, Q. and He, J. (2010) Tracking Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuators Based on Sliding Mode and Non-linear Disturbance Observer. Control Theory & Applications, 4, 2058-2070.

[19]   Yang, L. and Lilly, H.L. (2003) Sliding Mode Tracking for Pneumatic Muscle Actuators in Bicep/Tricep Pair Configuration. Proceedings of the 2003 American Control Conference, Denver, 4-6 June 2003, 4669-4674.

[20]   Choi, T. and Lee, J. (2010) Control of Manipulator Using Pneumatic Muscles for Enhanced Safety. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 57, 2815-2825.

[21]   Li, H., Kawashima, K., Tadano, K., Ganguly, S. and Nakano, S. (2013) Achieving Haptic Perception in Forceps’ Manipulator Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscle. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 18, 74-85.

[22]   Lilly, J.H. (2003) Adaptive Tracking for Pneumatic Muscle Actuators in Bicep and Tricep Configurations. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 11, 333-339.

[23]   Chang, M., Liou, J. and Chen, M. (2011) T-S Fuzzy Model-Based Tracking Control of a One-Dimensional Manipulator Actuated by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles. Control Engineering Practice, 19, 1442-1449.

[24]   Leephakpreeda, T. (2011) Fuzzy Logic Based PWM Control and Neural Controlled-Variable Estimation of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuators. Expert Systems with Applications, 38, 7837-7850.

[25]   Ahn, K.K., Thanh, T.D.C. and Ahn, Y.K. (2005) Intelligent Switching Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulator. JSME International Journal Series C Mechanical Systems, Machine Elements and Manufacturing, 48, 657-667.

[26]   Sato, K. and Sano, Y. (2014) Practical and Intuitive Controller Design Method for Precision Positioning of a Pneumatic Cylinder Actuator Stage. Precision Engineering, 38, 703-710.

[27]   Shen, X. (2010) Nonlinear Model-Based Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Servo Systems. Control Engineering Practice, 18, 311-317.

[28]   Chou, C. and Hannaford, B. (1996) Measurement and Modeling of McKibben Pneumatic Artificial Muscles. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 12, 90-102.

[29]   Ganguly, S., Garg, A., Pasricha, A. and Dwivedy, S.K. (2012) Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle System through Experimental Modelling. Mechatronics, 22, 1135-1147.

[30]   Festo (2010) Fluidic Muscle DMSP/MAS. Festo Brochure.

[31]   Fliess, M., Levine, J., Martin, P. and Rouchon, P. (1999) A Lie-Backlund Approach to Equivalence and Flatness of Nonlinear Systems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 44, 922-937.

[32]   Fliess, M. and Join, C. (2008) Intelligent PID Controllers. 16th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Ajaccio, 25-27 June 2008, 326-331.