OJMP  Vol.3 No.5 , October 2014
Decoding of Basic Emotions from Dynamic Visual Displays in Dementia: A Sign of Loss of Positivity Bias in Emotional Processing in Cognitively Unhealthy Aging?
ABSTRACT
Difficulties in recognizing emotional signals might have serious implications for social interactions. Neurodegenerative diseases that affect neural networks involved in emotional displays processing might thus be connected with a disproportionate impairment in social life. This study aimed at examining the ability to decode basic emotions from dynamic visual displays in mild to moderate dementia. Thirty old adults diagnosed as demented, and 30 gender-matched healthy controls were administered a measure of emotion evaluation. The groups did not differ significantly in age and educational level. The emotion evaluation test was designed to examine a person’s ability to visually identify basic emotions and discriminate these from neutral expressions, when they were expressed as dynamic, subtle, day-to-day expressions. Results showed that demented participants had a great difficulty in recognizing the positively valenced emotions of happiness and pleasant surprise, while sadness, anger, and anxiety were the easiest emotions to recognize. Healthy controls were almost excellent on happiness recognition, while discrimination of non-emotional displays was the most difficult condition often mislabeled as anxiety or pleasant surprise. Results were mainly discussed in terms of socio-emotional selectivity theory positing that only older adults capable of exerting cognitive controlled favor emotional over non-emotional and positive over negative information.

Cite this paper
Gkinopoulos, T. , Moraitou, D. , Papantoniou, G. , Nigritinou, M. , Ginos, P. and Kotselidou, D. (2014) Decoding of Basic Emotions from Dynamic Visual Displays in Dementia: A Sign of Loss of Positivity Bias in Emotional Processing in Cognitively Unhealthy Aging?. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 3, 325-336. doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.35034.
References
[1]   Buisine, S., Courgeon, M., Charles, A., Clavel, C., Martin, J.C., Tan, N. and Grynszpan, O. (2014) The Role of Body Postures in the Recognition of Emotion in Contextually-Rich Scenarios. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30, 52-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2013.802200

[2]   Dael, N., Goudbeek, M. and Scherer, K.R. (2013) Perceived Gesture Dynamics in Nonverbal Expressions of Emotion. Perception, 42, 642-657.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p7364

[3]   McCade, D., Savage, G., Guastella, A., Hickie, B.I., Lewis, J.G.S. and Nailsmith, L.S. (2013) Emotion Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship to Psychosocial Disability and Caregiver Burden. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 26, 165-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988713491832

[4]   Monroe, F.J., Griffin, M., Pinkham, A., Loughead, J., Gur, R.C., Roberts, P.L.T. and Edgar, J.C. (2013) The Fusiform Response to Faces: Explicit Versus Implicit Processing of Emotion. Human Brain Mapping, 34, 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21406

[5]   Suzuki, A. and Akiyama, H. (2013) Cognitive Aging Explains Age-Related Differences in Face-Based Recognition of Basic Emotions Except for Anger and Disgust. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 20, 253-270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2012.692761

[6]   Slessor, G., Riby, M.D. and Finnerty, N.A. (2013) Age-Related Differences in Processing Face Configuration: The Importance of the Eye Region. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68, 228-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs059

[7]   Mienaltowski, A., Johnson, R.E., Wittman, R., Wilson, A.T., Sturycz, C. and Farley Norman, J. (2013) The Visual Discrimination of Negative Facial Expressions by Younger and Older Adults. Vision Research, 81, 12-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2013.01.006

[8]   Krendl, A.C. and Ambady, N. (2010) Older Adults’ Decoding of Emotions: Role of Dynamic Versus Static Cues and Age-Related Cognitive Decline. Psychology and Aging, 25, 788-793.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020607

[9]   Ochsner, N.K. and Gross, J.J. (2005) The Cognitive Control of Emotion. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 242-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.010

[10]   Hot, P., Klein-Koerkamp, Y., Borg, Y., Richard-Mornas, A., Zsoldos, J., Paignon, A., Thomas Anterion, C. and Bacin, M. (2013) Fear Recognition Impairment in Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease: When Focusing on the Eyes Region Improves Performance. Brain and Cognition, 82, 25-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2013.02.001

[11]   Guaita, A., Malnati, M., Vaccaro, R., Pezzati, R., Marcionetti, J., Vitali, S.F. and Colombo, M. (2009) Impaired Facial Emotion Recognition and Preserved Reactivity to Facial Expression in People with Severe Dementia. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49, 135-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2009.09.023

[12]   Maki, Y., Yoshida, H., Yamaguchi, T. and Yamaguchi, H. (2013) Relative Preservation of the Recognition of Positive Facial Expression “Happiness” in Alzheimer’s Disease. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 105-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212001482

[13]   Werheid, K., Gruno, M., Kathmann, N., Fischer, H., Almkvist, O. and Winblad, B. (2010) Biased Recognition of Positive Faces in Aging and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. Psychology and Aging, 25, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018358

[14]   Drapeau, J., Gosselin, N., Gagnon, L., Peretz, I. and Lorrain, D. (2009) Emotional Recognition from Face, Voice and Music in Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type: Implications for Music Therapy. The Neurosciences and Music III Disorders and Plasticity, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 342-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04768.x

[15]   Moraitou, D., Papantoniou, G., Gkinopoulos, T. and Nigritinou, M. (2013) Older Adults’ Decoding of Emotions: Age-Related Differences in Interpreting Dynamic Emotional Displays and the Well-Preserved Ability to Recognize Happiness. Psychogeriatrics, 13, 139-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12016

[16]   Johnson, R.D. and Whiting, L.W. (2012) Detecting Subtle Expressions: Older Adults Demonstrate Automatic and Controlled Positive Response Bias in Emotional Perception. Psychology and Aging, 28, 172-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029914

[17]   Knight, M., Seymour, L.T., Gaunt, T.J., Baker, C., Nesmith, K. and Mather, M. (2007) Aging and Goal-Directed Emotional Attention: Distraction Reverses Emotional Biases. Emotion, 7, 705-714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.705

[18]   Tomaszczyk, J., Fernandes, M.A. and MacLeod, C. (2008) Personal Relevance Modulates the Positivity Bias in Recall of Emotional Pictures in Older Adults. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 191-196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/PBR.15.1.191

[19]   Kellough, J.L. and Knight, B.G. (2012) Positivity Effects in Older Adults’ Perception of Facial Emotion: The Role of Future Time Perspective. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67, 150-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbr079

[20]   Μoraitou, D. and Papantoniou, G. (2012) Mindfulness and Action Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Old Adults: An Examination of Their Relationship to Attentional Bias towards Emotional Information. Research in Psychology (Ricerche di Psicologia), 2010, 591-626.

[21]   Moraitou, D. and Efklides, A. (2007) Affect and Emotions. In: Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., Ed., GeroPsychology: European Perspectives for an Ageing World, Hogrefe & Huber, Goettingen, 82-102.

[22]   Henry, J.D., Ruffman, T., McDonald, S., Peek O’Leary, M., Phillips, L.H., Brodaty, H. and Rendell, P.G. (2008) Recognition of Disgust Is Selectively Preserved in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychologia, 46, 1363-1370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.12.012

[23]   Ruffman, T., Henry, J.D., Livingstone, V. and Phillips, L.H. (2008) A Meta-Analytic Review of Emotion Recognition and Aging: Implications for Neuropsychological Models of Aging. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 863-881.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.01.001

[24]   Isaacowitz, D.M. and Stanley, J.T. (2011) Bringing an Ecological Perspective to the Study of Aging and Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions: Past, Current, and Future Methods. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 35, 261-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10919-011-0113-6

[25]   Wright, C., Negreira, A., Gold, A., Britton, J., Williams, D. and Feldman Barrett, L. (2008) Neural Correlates of Novelty and Face-Age Effects in Young and Elderly Adults. NeuroImage, 42, 956-968.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.05.015

[26]   Bar-Anan, Y., Wilson, T. and Gilbert, D. (2009) The Feeling of Uncertainty Intensifies Affective Reactions. Emotion, 9, 123-127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014607

[27]   Weierich, M., Wright, C., Negreira, A., Dickerson, B. and Feldman Barrett, L. (2010) Novelty as a Dimension in the Affective Brain. NeuroImage, 49, 2871-2878.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.047

[28]   Carstensen, L., Fung, H. and Charles, S.T. (2003) Socioemotional Selectivity Theory and the Regulation of Emotion in the Second Half of Life. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 103-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024569803230

[29]   Charles, S.T. (2010) Strength and Vulnerability Integration: A Model of Emotional Well-Being acoss Adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 1068-1091.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021232

[30]   Wyble, B., Sharma, D. and Bowman, H. (2008) Strategic Regulation of Cognitive Control by Emotional Salience: A Neural Network Model. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 1019-1051.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930701597627

[31]   Yang, L. and Hasher, L. (2011) Age Differences in the Automatic Accessibility of Emotional Words from Semantic Memory. Cognition and Emotion, 25, 3-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930903523348

[32]   Leclerc, C.M. and Kensinger, E.A. (2008) Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information. Psychology and Aging, 23, 209-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.209

[33]   Samanez-Larkin, G., Robertson, E., Mikels, J., Carstensen, L. and Gotlib, I. (2009) Selective Attention to Emotion in the Aging Brain. Psychology and Aging, 24, 519-529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016952

[34]   Scheibe, S. and Carstensen, L. (2010) Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends. Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65B, 135-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp132

[35]   Kelley, N., Tang, D. and Schmeichel, B.J. (2013) Mortality Salience Biases Attention to Positive versus Negative Images among Individuals Higher in Trait Self-Control. Cognition and Emotion, 28, 550-559.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2013.840269

[36]   Isaacowitz, D., Waldinger, H., Goren, D. and Wilson, H. (2006) Selective Preference in Visual Fixation away from Negative Images in Old Age? An Eye-Tracking Study. Psychology and Aging, 21, 40-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.40

[37]   Kryla-Lighthall, N. and Mather, M. (2009) The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adults’ Emotional Well-Being. In: Bengston, V., Gans, D., Putney, N. and Silverstein, M., Eds., Handbook of Theories of Aging, Springer, New York, 323-344.

[38]   Mather, M. and Knight, M. (2005) Goal-Directed Memory: The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adults’ Emotional Memory. Psychology and Aging, 20, 554-570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.20.4.554

[39]   Ochsner, K.N. and Gross, J.J. (2007) The Neural Architecture of Emotion Regulation. In: Gross, J.J., Ed., Handbook of Emotion Regulation, Guilford, New York, 87-109.

[40]   Ochsner, K.N., Ray, R.D., Cooper, J.C., Robertson, E.R., Chopra, S., Gabrieli, J.D. and Gross, J.J. (2004) For Better or for Worse: Neural Systems Supporting the Cognitive Down- and Up-Regulation of Negative Emotion. NeuroImage, 23, 483-499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.06.030

[41]   Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E. and McHugh, P.R. (1975) Mini-Mental State: A Practical Method for Grading the Cognitive State of Patients for the Clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

[42]   Fountoulakis, K., Tsolaki, M., Chantzi, H. and Kazis, A. (2000) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): A Validation Study in Greece. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 15, 342-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/153331750001500604

[43]   Sheikh, J.I. and Yesavage, J.A. (1986) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent Evidence and Development of a Shorter Version. Clinical Gerontology, 5, 165-173.

[44]   Fountoulakis, K., Tsolaki, M., Iacovides, A., Yesavage, J., O’Hara, R., Kazis, A. and Ierodiakonou, C. (1999) The Validation of the Short Form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in Greece. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (Milano), 11, 367-372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03339814

[45]   McDonald, S., Bornhofen, C., Shum, D., Long, E., Saunders, C. and Neulinger, K. (2006) Reliability and Validity of the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): A Clinical Test of Social Perception. Disability and Rehabilitation, 28, 1529-1542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638280600646185

[46]   McDonald, S., Flanagan, S., Rollins, J. and Kinch, J. (2003) TASIT: A New Clinical Tool for Assessing Social Perception after Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 219-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001199-200305000-00001

[47]   McDonald, S., Flanagan, S. and Rollins, J., the University of New South Wales’ Media & Education Technology Support Unit (2002) The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): Manual. Pearson, London.

[48]   Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M. and Mather, M. (2012) Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation? Gerontology, 58, 156-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000328465

[49]   Brassen, S., Gamer, M. and Buechel, C. (2011) Anterior Cingulate Activation Is Related to a Positivity Bias and Emotional Stability in Successful Aging. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 131-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.013

[50]   Phillips, L., Scott, C., Henry, J.D., Mowat, D. and Bell, J.S. (2010) Emotion Perception in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mood Disorder in Old Age. Psychology and Aging, 25, 38-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017369

[51]   Goodkind, M.S., Sollberger, M., Gyurak, A., Rosen, H.J., Rankin, K.P., Miller, B. and Levenson, R. (2011) Tracking Emotional Valence: The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 33, 753-762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21251

[52]   Buhle, J.T., Silvers, J.A., Wager, T.D., Lopez, R., Onyemekwu, C., Kober, H., Weber, J. and Ochsner, K.N. (2013) Cognitive Reappraisal of Emotion: A Meta-Analysis of Human Neuroimaging Studies. Cerebral Cortex, Published Online.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bht154

[53]   Freedman, M., Binns, M.A., Black, S.E., Murphy, C. and Stuss, D.T. (2013) Theory of Mind and Recognition of Facial Emotion in Dementia: Challenge to Current Concepts. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 27, 56-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e31824ea5db

 
 
Top