AiM  Vol.4 No.13 , October 2014
New Spa Types among MRSA and MSSA Isolates in North of Iran
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus typing using gene encoding protein A (spa typing) seems to have a high potential discriminatory power for typing this bacterium. This study was designed based on spa typing method to compare the S. aureus types among healthy carrier vs patients, and MRSA vs MSSA isolates. Method: This study was carried out on 182 spa typeable S. aureus isolates, including 52 MRSA. DNA was extracted by phenol chloroform-isoamyl alcohol method and it was amplified by specific primer of polymorphic X region of spa. Spa types were determined by Ridom Staph Type software. The spa types distribution among MRSA vs MSSA and healthy carrier vs patients, isolates were statistically compared by X2 method and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Result: The most common types of spa in our region were t037 (18.3%) and t937 (13.9%) from 50 spa types which were identified in this study. spa types in this study were isolated from various age groups but t660 spa types were only isolated from children. Distribution of all spa types among MRSA and MSSA isolates was 16 and 38 types, respectively which is significant. In this study we found seven new spa types (belong to twelve isolates) which are reported for the first time. In 5 out of the above 7 new types the 24 bp repeated sequences in spa gene X region were already recognized but their 24 bp arrangement is introduced in our present investigation. In the remaining 2 new types we found new 24 bp nucleotide sequences which are also introduced for the first time in our present study. Conclusion: The distribution of spa types in MSSA strains was significantly higher than MRSA isolates, but there are not any specific spa types for discrimination between MRSA and MSSA. The novelty of our study is the introducing 7 new spa types including 2 new 24 bp repeated sequences in the X region of spa gene.
Cite this paper: Shakeri, F. and Ghaemi, E. (2014) New Spa Types among MRSA and MSSA Isolates in North of Iran. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 899-905. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.413100.

[1]   Brown, A.F., Leech, J.M., Rogers, T.R. and McLoughlin, R.M. (2014) Staphylococcus aureus Colonization: Modulation of Host Immune Response and Impact on Human Vaccine Design. Frontiers in Immunology, 4, 507.

[2]   Lowy, F.D. (1998) Staphylococcus aureus Infections. New England Journal of Medicine, 339, 520-532.

[3]   Strommenger, B., Kettlitz, C., Weniger, T., Harmsen, D., Friedrich, A.W. and Witte, W. (2006) Assignment of Staphylococcus Isolates to Groups by spa Typing, SmaI Macrorestriction Analysis, and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44, 2533-2540.

[4]   Saunders, N.A. and Holmes, A. (2014) Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1085, 113-130.

[5]   Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, M.D. (2013) Molecular Tools for Staphylococcus aureus Typing: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Basic Science in the ICU1, 11-13.

[6]   Frenay, H.M., Theelen, J.P., Schouls, L.M., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M., Verhoef, J., van Leeuwen, W.J., et al. (1994) Discrimination of Epidemic and Nonepidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains on the Basis of Protein A Gene Polymorphism. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32, 846-847.

[7]   Frenay, H.M., Bunschoten, A.E., Schouls, L.M., Van Leeuwen, W.J., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M., Verhoef, J., et al. (1996) Molecular Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the Basis of Protein Agene Polymorphism. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 15, 60-64.

[8]   Koreen, L., Ramaswamy, S.V., Graviss, E.A., Naidich, S., Musser, J.M. and Kreiswirth, B.N. (2004) spa Typing Method for Discriminating among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates: Implications for Use of a Single Marker to Detect Genetic Micro- and Macrovariation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 792-799.

[9]   Rahimi Alang, S., Asmar, M., Cheraghali, F., Yazarlou, S., Amini, A., Shakeri, F. and Ghaemi, E.A. (2010) Frequency of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Health Care Workers in Gorgan. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 13, 17-22.

[10]   Vaez, H., Tabaraei, A., Moradi, A. and Ghaemi, E.A. (2011) Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Patients in Golestan Province—North of Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5, 432-436.

[11]   Shopsin, B., Gomez, M., Montgomery, S.O., Smith, D.H., Waddington, M., Dodge, D.E., et al. (1999) Evaluation of Protein A Gene Polymorphic Region DNA Sequencing for Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 3556-3563.

[12]   Faria, N.A., Carrico, A., Duarte Oliveira, C., Ramirez, M. and Lencastre, H. (2008) Analysis of Typing Methods for Epidemiological Surveillance of both Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 46, 136-144.

[13]   Shakeri, F., Shojai, A., Golalipour, M., Rahimi Alang, S., Vaez, H. and Ghaemi, E.A. (2010) spa Diversity among MRSA and MSSA Strains of Staphylococcus aureus in North of Iran. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Microbiology, 2010, Article ID: 351397.

[14]   Mehndiratta, P., Bhalla, A., Ahmd, Y. and Sharma, D. (2009) Molecular Typing of Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains by PCR-RFLP of spa Gene. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 27, 116-122.

[15]   Strommenger, B., Braulke, C., Heuck, D., Schmidt, C., Pasemann, B., Nübel, U. and Witte, W. (2008) Spa Typing of Staphylococcus aureus as a Frontline Tool in Epidemiological Typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 46, 574-581.