ABSTRACT It is well known that the native oxide layer on titanium (Ti) implants is responsible for its superior biocompatibility and tissue integration. Recent efforts have targeted titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a good candidate for surface modification at the nanoscale, leading to improved nanotextures for enhancing host integration properties. Here we explore the in vitro inflammatory response of macrophages to TiO2 nanotube surface structures with different diameters (30, 50, 70, and 100nm) created by a simple electrochemical anodization process. This work was designed to study the nanosize effect for controlling and optimizing inflammatory response to a Ti implant surface utilizing nanotechnology. Using intracellular staining and flow cytometry for detecting macrophage TNF cytokine expression, we have found that 70nm diameter nanotube surfaces have the bestadvantage in terms of diameter size by producing theweakest inflammatory response, compared to a commercially available Ti surface without oxide modification. We also present cell-freedata on free radical scavenging using the nanotube surfaces with different diameters to test the removal of nitric oxidefrom solution; again, our findings indicate that 70nm titanium dioxide nanotubes exhibit optimal removal of nitric oxide from solution, making them excellent candidates for use in medical devices that would benefit from decreased inflammatory response
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nullL. Chamberlain, K. Brammer, G. Johnston, S. Chien and S. Jin, "Macrophage Inflammatory Response to TiO2 Nanotube Surfaces," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 293-300. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.23036.
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