Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD)

ABSTRACT

In this work, forming limit diagram for aluminum alloy 3105 is performed experimentally and forming limit based on stress (FLSD) calculated from strains that resulted from experimental procedure. In addition, numerical prediction by ductile fracture criteria using simulation is considered and it is shown that they are well suited with the experimental results. The strain paths from finite element simulations are found fairly acceptable to represent both sides of the FLD.

In this work, forming limit diagram for aluminum alloy 3105 is performed experimentally and forming limit based on stress (FLSD) calculated from strains that resulted from experimental procedure. In addition, numerical prediction by ductile fracture criteria using simulation is considered and it is shown that they are well suited with the experimental results. The strain paths from finite element simulations are found fairly acceptable to represent both sides of the FLD.

KEYWORDS

Forming Limit Diagram, Forming Limit Stress Diagram, Aluminum Alloy 3105, Ductile Fracture Criteria

Forming Limit Diagram, Forming Limit Stress Diagram, Aluminum Alloy 3105, Ductile Fracture Criteria

Cite this paper

nullM. Safari, S. Hosseinipour and H. Azodi, "Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD),"*Materials Sciences and Applications*, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 496-502. doi: 10.4236/msa.2011.25067.

nullM. Safari, S. Hosseinipour and H. Azodi, "Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD),"

References

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[2] G. M. Goodwin, “Application of Strain Analysis to Sheet Metal Forming in the Press Shop,” SAE Paper, No. 680093, 1968.

[3] H. J. Kleemola and M. T. Pelkkikangas, “Efect of Predeformation and Strain Path on the Forming Limits of Steel Copper and Brass,” Sheet Metal Industries, Vol. 64, No. 6, June 1977, pp. 591-599.

[4] R. Arrieux, C. Bedrin and M. Boivin, “Determination of an Intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Diagram for Isotropic Metal Sheets,” Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Congress of the IDDRG, 1982, pp. 61-71.

[5] T. B. Stoughton, “A General Forming Limit Criterion for Sheet Metal Forming,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 1, January 2000, pp. 1-27. doi:10.1016/S0020-7403(98)00113-1

[6] A. Barata Da Rocha, F. Barlat and J. M. Jalinier, “Prediction of the Forming Limit Diagrams of Anisotropic Sheets in Linear and Non-Linear Loading,” Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 68, No. 2, January 1985, pp. 151-164. doi:10.1016/0025-5416(85)90404-5

[7] G. Beveridge and R. Schechter, “Optimization Theory and Practice,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970.

[8] M. Gotoh and F. Ishise, “A Finite Element Analysis of Rigid-Plastic Deformation of the Flange in a Deep Drawing Process Based on a Fourth-Degree Yield Function,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1978, pp. 423-435. doi:10.1016/0020-7403(78)90032-2

[9] H. Iseki and T. Murota, “Analysis of Deep Drawing of Non-Axisymmetric Cups by the Finite Element Method,” Proceedings of the First ICTP, Tokyo, 1984, pp. 678-684.

[10] R. Sowerby, N. Chandrasekaran, X. Chen, M. Rooks and P. Correa, “The Development of Computer Aids for Sheet Metal Stampings in CAD/CAM and FEM in Metal Working,” In: S.K. Ghosh, A.Niku-Lair, Eds., The Development of Computer Aids for Sheet Metal Stampings in CAD/CAM and FEM in Metal Working, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1988, pp. 187-203.

[11] R. H. Wagoner, K. S. Chan and S. P. Keeler, “Forming Limit Diagrams: Concepts, Methods, and Applications,” The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1989, pp. 153- 163.

[12] R. Sowerby, J. L. Duncan and E. Chu, “The Modeling of Sheet Metal Stamping,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 7, 1986, pp. 415-430. doi:10.1016/0020-7403(86)90062-7

[13] Y. Q. Guo, J. L. Batoz, J. M. Detraux and P. Duroux, “Finite Element Procedures for Strain Estimations of Sheet Metal Forming Parts,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 8, December 1990, pp. 1385-1401.

[14] J. H. Vogel, J. Amodo and D. Lee, “An Integration Process Design Method for Sheet Material Forming,” Proceedings of the 15th Biennial Conferences on IDDRG, Dearborn, 1988, p. 265.

[15] K. Lange, M. Herrmann, P. Keck and M. K. Wilhelm, “Application of an Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Code to the Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 27, No. 1-3, August 1991, pp. 239-261. doi:10.1016/0924-0136(91)90056-K

[16] H.Y. Jiang and D. Lee, “Numerical Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Process Based on Large Deformation Sheet Elements,” Proceedings of the NUMIFORM’92, 1992, p. 485.

[17] S. E. Clift, P. Hartley, C. E. N. Sturgess and G. W. Rowe, “Fracture Prediction in Plastic deformation Processes” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1990, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1016/0020-7403(90)90148-C

[18] H. Takuda, K. Mori, H. Fujimoto and N. Hatta, “Prediction of Forming Limit in Deep Drawing of Fe/Al Laminated Composite Sheets Using Ductile Fracture Criterion,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 60, No. 1-4, June 1996, pp. 291-296. doi:10.1016/0924-0136(96)02344-8

[19] H. Takuda, K. Mori and N. Hatta, “The Application of Some Criteria for Ductile Fracture to the Prediction of the Forming Limit of Sheet Metals,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 95, No. 1-3, October 1999, pp. 116-121. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00275-7

[20] H. Takuda, K. Mori, N. Takakura and K. Yamaguchi, “Finite Element Analysis of Limit Strains in BiaxialStretching of Sheet Metals Allowing for Ductile Fracture,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 785-798. doi:10.1016/S0020-7403(99)00018-1

[21] A. S. Wifi, A. Adbel-Hamed, N. El-Abbasi and H. Harmoush, In: “Finite Element Analysis of Workability of Some Bulk Forming Processes,” T. Abe, T. Tsuta, Eds., Advances in Engineering Plasticity and its Applications, Pergamon, New York, 1996, pp. 197-202.

[22] A. M. Freudenthal, “The Inelastic Behavior of Engineering Materials and Structures,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1950.

[23] M. G. Cockcroft and D. J. Latham, “Ductility and the Workability of Metals,” Journal Institute of Metals, Vol. 96, 1968, pp. 33-39.

[24] P. W. Bridgman, “Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952.

[25] S. I. Oh, C. C. Chen and S. Kobayashi, “Ductile Fracture in Axisymmetric Extrusion and Drawing,” Journal of Engineering for Industry-Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 101, 1979, pp. 36-44. doi:10.1115/1.3439471

[26] W. F. Hosford, “On Yield Loci of Anisotropic Cubic Metals,” Proceedings of the Seventh North American Metalworking Research Conference, SME, Dearborn, 1979, pp. 191-197.

[27] A. Sadough, M. Shakeri and B. M. Dariani, “Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Sheet Metal Formability Limits,” La Revue de Metallurgie-CIT/Science et Genie des Materiaux Mai, 2000, pp. 663-670.

[1] [1] S. P. Keeler and W. A. Backhofen, “Plastic Instability and Fracture in Sheet Stretched over Rigid Punches,” ASM Transactions Quarterly, Vol. 56, No. 11, 1963, pp. 25-48.

[2] G. M. Goodwin, “Application of Strain Analysis to Sheet Metal Forming in the Press Shop,” SAE Paper, No. 680093, 1968.

[3] H. J. Kleemola and M. T. Pelkkikangas, “Efect of Predeformation and Strain Path on the Forming Limits of Steel Copper and Brass,” Sheet Metal Industries, Vol. 64, No. 6, June 1977, pp. 591-599.

[4] R. Arrieux, C. Bedrin and M. Boivin, “Determination of an Intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Diagram for Isotropic Metal Sheets,” Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Congress of the IDDRG, 1982, pp. 61-71.

[5] T. B. Stoughton, “A General Forming Limit Criterion for Sheet Metal Forming,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 1, January 2000, pp. 1-27. doi:10.1016/S0020-7403(98)00113-1

[6] A. Barata Da Rocha, F. Barlat and J. M. Jalinier, “Prediction of the Forming Limit Diagrams of Anisotropic Sheets in Linear and Non-Linear Loading,” Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 68, No. 2, January 1985, pp. 151-164. doi:10.1016/0025-5416(85)90404-5

[7] G. Beveridge and R. Schechter, “Optimization Theory and Practice,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970.

[8] M. Gotoh and F. Ishise, “A Finite Element Analysis of Rigid-Plastic Deformation of the Flange in a Deep Drawing Process Based on a Fourth-Degree Yield Function,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1978, pp. 423-435. doi:10.1016/0020-7403(78)90032-2

[9] H. Iseki and T. Murota, “Analysis of Deep Drawing of Non-Axisymmetric Cups by the Finite Element Method,” Proceedings of the First ICTP, Tokyo, 1984, pp. 678-684.

[10] R. Sowerby, N. Chandrasekaran, X. Chen, M. Rooks and P. Correa, “The Development of Computer Aids for Sheet Metal Stampings in CAD/CAM and FEM in Metal Working,” In: S.K. Ghosh, A.Niku-Lair, Eds., The Development of Computer Aids for Sheet Metal Stampings in CAD/CAM and FEM in Metal Working, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1988, pp. 187-203.

[11] R. H. Wagoner, K. S. Chan and S. P. Keeler, “Forming Limit Diagrams: Concepts, Methods, and Applications,” The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1989, pp. 153- 163.

[12] R. Sowerby, J. L. Duncan and E. Chu, “The Modeling of Sheet Metal Stamping,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 7, 1986, pp. 415-430. doi:10.1016/0020-7403(86)90062-7

[13] Y. Q. Guo, J. L. Batoz, J. M. Detraux and P. Duroux, “Finite Element Procedures for Strain Estimations of Sheet Metal Forming Parts,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 8, December 1990, pp. 1385-1401.

[14] J. H. Vogel, J. Amodo and D. Lee, “An Integration Process Design Method for Sheet Material Forming,” Proceedings of the 15th Biennial Conferences on IDDRG, Dearborn, 1988, p. 265.

[15] K. Lange, M. Herrmann, P. Keck and M. K. Wilhelm, “Application of an Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Code to the Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 27, No. 1-3, August 1991, pp. 239-261. doi:10.1016/0924-0136(91)90056-K

[16] H.Y. Jiang and D. Lee, “Numerical Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Process Based on Large Deformation Sheet Elements,” Proceedings of the NUMIFORM’92, 1992, p. 485.

[17] S. E. Clift, P. Hartley, C. E. N. Sturgess and G. W. Rowe, “Fracture Prediction in Plastic deformation Processes” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1990, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1016/0020-7403(90)90148-C

[18] H. Takuda, K. Mori, H. Fujimoto and N. Hatta, “Prediction of Forming Limit in Deep Drawing of Fe/Al Laminated Composite Sheets Using Ductile Fracture Criterion,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 60, No. 1-4, June 1996, pp. 291-296. doi:10.1016/0924-0136(96)02344-8

[19] H. Takuda, K. Mori and N. Hatta, “The Application of Some Criteria for Ductile Fracture to the Prediction of the Forming Limit of Sheet Metals,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 95, No. 1-3, October 1999, pp. 116-121. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00275-7

[20] H. Takuda, K. Mori, N. Takakura and K. Yamaguchi, “Finite Element Analysis of Limit Strains in BiaxialStretching of Sheet Metals Allowing for Ductile Fracture,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 785-798. doi:10.1016/S0020-7403(99)00018-1

[21] A. S. Wifi, A. Adbel-Hamed, N. El-Abbasi and H. Harmoush, In: “Finite Element Analysis of Workability of Some Bulk Forming Processes,” T. Abe, T. Tsuta, Eds., Advances in Engineering Plasticity and its Applications, Pergamon, New York, 1996, pp. 197-202.

[22] A. M. Freudenthal, “The Inelastic Behavior of Engineering Materials and Structures,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1950.

[23] M. G. Cockcroft and D. J. Latham, “Ductility and the Workability of Metals,” Journal Institute of Metals, Vol. 96, 1968, pp. 33-39.

[24] P. W. Bridgman, “Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952.

[25] S. I. Oh, C. C. Chen and S. Kobayashi, “Ductile Fracture in Axisymmetric Extrusion and Drawing,” Journal of Engineering for Industry-Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 101, 1979, pp. 36-44. doi:10.1115/1.3439471

[26] W. F. Hosford, “On Yield Loci of Anisotropic Cubic Metals,” Proceedings of the Seventh North American Metalworking Research Conference, SME, Dearborn, 1979, pp. 191-197.

[27] A. Sadough, M. Shakeri and B. M. Dariani, “Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Sheet Metal Formability Limits,” La Revue de Metallurgie-CIT/Science et Genie des Materiaux Mai, 2000, pp. 663-670.