SM  Vol.4 No.4 , October 2014
The Effect of Wealth Inequality on Higher Education Outcomes: A Critical Review
ABSTRACT
American society reflects considerable class immobility, much of which may be explained by the wide gaps in college completion rates between economically advantaged and disadvantaged groups of students. First, we discuss the factors that lead to unequal college completion rates and introduce assets as an explanation often ignored by stratification scholars. We then discuss how a legacy of wealth inequality has led to wealthy students having an advantage at the financial aid bargaining table over low-income and minority students. We conclude by discussing how asset-building policies such as children’s savings accounts offer a potential policy strategy to alter the distributional consequences of the current financial aid system and help level the playing field.

Cite this paper
Rauscher, E. and Elliott III, W. (2014) The Effect of Wealth Inequality on Higher Education Outcomes: A Critical Review. Sociology Mind, 4, 282-297. doi: 10.4236/sm.2014.44029.
References
[1]   Acs, G., Loprest, P., & Nichols, A. (2009). Risk and Recovery: Understanding the Changing Risks to Family Incomes Low-Income Working Families. Washington DC: The Urban Institute.

[2]   Assets and Education Initiative (2013). Building Expectations, Delivering Results: Asset-Based Financial Aid and the Future of Higher Education. In W. Elliott (Ed.), Biannual Report on the Assets and Education Field. Lawrence, KS: Assets and Education Initiative (AEDI).

[3]   Adler, N. E., Boyce, W. T., Chesney, M. A., Folkman, S., & Syme, S. L. (1993). Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: No Easy Solution. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 3140-3145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500240084031

[4]   Almond, D. (2006). Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic over? Long-Term Effects of in Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post-1940 U.S. Population. Journal of Political Economy, 114, 672-712.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/507154

[5]   Almond, D., Edlund, L., & Palme, M. (2009). Chernobyl’s Subclinical Legacy: Prenatal Exposure to Radioactive Fallout and School Outcomes in Sweden. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124, 1729-1772.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2009.124.4.1729

[6]   Almond, D., & Mazumder, B. (2005). The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Subsequent Health Outcomes: An Analysis of SIPP data. The American Economic Review, 95, 258-262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/000282805774669943

[7]   Archibald, R. B., & Feldman, D. H. (2011) Why Does College Cost So Much? New York: Oxford University Press.

[8]   Attewell, P., & Lavin, D. E. (2007). Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay off across the Generations? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

[9]   Autor, D. H. (2014). Skills, Education, and the Rise of Earnings Inequality among the “Other 99 Percent.” Science, 344, 843-851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1251868

[10]   Baum, S., & Schwartz, S. (1988). Merit Aid to College Students. Economics of Education Review, 7, 127-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7757(88)90077-5

[11]   Behrman, J. R., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2004). Returns to Birthweight. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 86, 586-601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/003465304323031139

[12]   Belman, D., & Heywood, J. (1991). Sheepskin Effects in the Return to Education. Review of Economics and Statistics, 73, 720-724.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2109413

[13]   Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2007). From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122, 409-439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/qjec.122.1.409

[14]   Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American Occupational Structure. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

[15]   Boshara, R. (2003). Federal Policy and Asset Building. Social Development Issues, 25, 130-141.

[16]   Bourdieu, P. (1977). Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction. In J. Karabel, & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (pp. 487-511). New York: Oxford University Press.

[17]   Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., & McPherson, M. S. (2009). Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America’s Public Universities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[18]   Branigan, A. R., McCallum, K. J., & Freese, J. (2013).Variation in the Heritability of Educational Attainment: An International Meta-Analysis. Social Forces, 92, 109-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/sot076

[19]   Card, D., & Krueger, A. (1996). School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10, 31-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.10.4.31

[20]   Carnevale, A. P., & Strohl, J. (2010). How Increasing College Access Is Increasing Inequality and What to Do about It. In R. Kahlenberg (Ed.), Rewarding Strivers: Helping Low-Income Students Succeed in College (pp. 1-231). New York: Century Foundation Books.

[21]   Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., Stone III, J. R., Kotamraju, P., Steuernagel, B., & Green, K. A. (2011). Career Clusters: Forecasting Demand for High School through College Jobs. Washington DC: Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce.

[22]   Collier, P., & Morgan, D. (2008). Is That Paper Really Due Today? Differences in First Generation and Traditional College Students’ Understandings of Faculty Expectations. Higher Education, 55, 425-446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10734-007-9065-5

[23]   Condron, D. J., & Roscigno, V. J. (2003). Disparities within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District. Sociology of Education, 76, 18-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3090259

[24]   Conley, D. (1999). Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth and Social Policy in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[25]   Conley, D. (2001). Capital for college: Parental Assets and Postsecondary Schooling. Sociology of Education, 74, 59-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2673145

[26]   Conley, D., Strully, K. W., & Bennett, N. G. (2003). The Starting Gate: Birth Weight and Life Chances. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[27]   Cookson, P. W., & Persell, C. H. (1985). Preparing for Power: America’s Elite Boarding Schools. New York: Basic Books.

[28]   Cornwell, C. M., & Mustard, D. M. (2002). Race and the Effects of Georgia’s HOPE Scholarship. In D. E. Heller, & P. Marin (Eds.), Who Should We Help? The Negative Social Consequences of Merit Scholarships (pp. 57-72). Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.

[29]   Cunningham, A. F., & Santiago, D. A. (2008). Student Aversion to Borrowing: Who Borrows and Who Doesn’t. Washington DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy and Excelencia in Education.

[30]   Davies, S., & Guppy, N. (1997). Field of Study, College Selectivity and Student Inequalities in Higher Education. Social Forces, 75, 1417-1438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/75.4.1417

[31]   Davis, K., & Moore, W. E. (1945). Some Principles of Stratification. American Sociological Review, 10, 242-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2085643

[32]   DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural Capital and School Success: The Impact of Status Culture Participation on the Grades of U.S. high School Students. American Sociological Review, 47, 189-201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094962

[33]   Eckles, J. E., & Stradley, E. G. (2012). A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 165-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-011-9173-z

[34]   Eide, E. R., & Showalter, M. H. (2011). Estimating the Relation between Health and Education: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know? Economics of Education Review, 30, 778-791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2011.03.009

[35]   Elliott, W. (2013a). The Effects of Economic Instability on Children’s Educational Outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 461-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.12.017

[36]   Elliott, W. (2013b). Small-Dollar Children’s Savings Accounts and Children’s College Outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 572-585.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.12.015

[37]   Elliott, W., & Sherraden, M. S. (2013). Institutional Facilitation and CSA Effects (Chapter 2). In W. Elliott (Ed.), Building Expectations, Delivering Results: Asset-Based Financial Aid and the Future of Higher Education. Biannual Report on the Assets and Education Field. Lawrence, KS: Assets and Education Initiative.

[38]   Elliott, W., Song, H. A., & Nam, I. (2013). Small-Dollar Children’s Savings Accounts and Children’s College Outcomes by Income Level. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 560-571.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.12.003

[39]   Ermisch, J., Jantti, M., & Smeeding, T. (2012). From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

[40]   Fletcher, J., & Wolfe, B. L. (2008). Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited. Journal of Health Economics, 27, 794-800.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2007.10.010

[41]   Fletcher, J. M., & Lehrer, S. F. (2009). The Effects of Adolescent Health on Educational Outcomes: Causal Evidence Using Genetic Lotteries between Siblings. Forum for Health Economics & Policy, 12, Article 8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1558-9544.1180

[42]   Flynn, J. R. (2007). What Is Intelligence? New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605253

[43]   Friedline, T., Elliott, W., & Nam, I. (2013). Small-Dollar Children’s Savings Accounts and Children’s College Outcomes by Race. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 548-559.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.12.007

[44]   Fry, R. (2012). A Record One-in-Five Households Now Owe Student Loan Debt. Washington DC: Pew Research Center.
www.pewsocialtrends.org/2012/09/26/a-record-one-in-five-households-now-owe-student-loan-debt/

[45]   Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

[46]   Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books.

[47]   Geiger, R. L., & Heller, D. E. (2011). Financial Trends in Higher Education: The United States. Center for the Study of Higher Education.
http://www.ed.psu.edu/educ/cshe/working-papers/WP%236

[48]   Goldberg, F. (2005). The Universal Piggy Bank: Designing and Implementing a System of Universal Accounts for Children. In M. Sherraden (Ed.), Inclusion in the American Dream: Assets, Poverty and Public Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

[49]   Goodchild, L. F., & Wechsler, H. S. (1997). The History of Higher Education (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

[50]   Greenwald, R. (2012). Think of First-Generation Students as Pioneers, Not Problems. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
http://chronicle.com/article/Think-of-First-Generation/135710/

[51]   Hamilton, L. (2013). More Is More or More Is Less? Parental Financial Investments during College. American Sociological Review, 78, 70-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122412472680

[52]   Haskins, R. (2008). Education and Economic Mobility. In J. B. Isaacs, I. V. Sawhill, & R. Haskins (Eds.), Getting ahead or Losing Ground: Economic Mobility in America. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.

[53]   Hertz, T., Jayasundera, T., Piraino, P., Selcuk, S., Smith, N., & Verashchagina, A. (2007). The Inheritance of Educational Inequality: Intergenerational Comparison and Fifty-Year Trends. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 7, Article 10.

[54]   Hout, M. (1984). Status, Autonomy and Training in Occupational Mobility. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 379-409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228020

[55]   Hout, M. (1988). More Universalism, Less Structural Mobility: The American Occupational Structure in the 1980s. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 1358-1400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228904

[56]   Hoxby, C. M., & Avery, C. (2012). The Missing “One-Offs”: The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low-Income Students. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 18586. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

[57]   Jantti, M., Bratsberg, B., Roed, K., Raaum, O., Naylor, R., Osterbacka, E., & Eriksson, T. (2006). American Exceptionalism in a New Light: A Comparison of Intergenerational Earnings Mobility in the Nordic Countries, The United Kingdom and The United States. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper No. 1938.

[58]   Johnson, H. B. (2006). The American Dream and the Power of Wealth: Choosing Schools and Inheriting Inequality in the Land of Opportunity. New York: Routledge.

[59]   Kalleberg, A. L. (2011). Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: The Rise of Polarized and Precarious Employment Systems in the United States, 1970s to 2000s. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

[60]   Khan, S. (2011). Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St. Paul’s School. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[61]   Kim, Y., & Sherraden, M. (2011). Do Parental Assets Matter for Children’s Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mediation Tests. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 969-979.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.01.003

[62]   King, T., & Bannon, E. (2002). At What Costs? The Price That Working Students Pay for a College Education.
www.pirg.org/highered/atwhatcost4_16_02.pdf

[63]   Kinzie, J., Palmer, M., Hayek, J., Hossler, D., Jacob, S., & Cummings, H. (2004). Fifty Years of College Choice: Social, Political and Institutional Influences on the Decision-Making Process (Vol. 5). Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation for Education.

[64]   Knight, J. (1992). Institutions and Social Conflict. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528170

[65]   Lareau, A. (2002). Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families. American Sociological Review, 67, 747-776.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3088916

[66]   Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[67]   Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal Childhoods: Race, Class and Family Life (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[68]   Mare, R. M., & Tzeng, M. (1989). Father’s Ages and the Social Stratification of Sons. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 108-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229215

[69]   Marin, P. (2002). Merit Scholarships and the Outlook for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education. In D. E. Heller, & P. Marin (Eds.), Who Should We Help? The Negative Social Consequences of Merit Scholarships (pp. 109-114). Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.

[70]   Mayer, S. E. (1997). What Money Can’t Buy: Family Income and Children’s Life Chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[71]   McKernan, S., Ratcliffe, C., & Vinopal, K. (2009). Do Assets Help Families Cope with Adverse Events? Perspectives on Low-Income Working Families, Brief 10. Washington DC: The Urban Institute.

[72]   McLeod, J. D., Uemura, R., & Rohrman, S. (2012). Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems and Academic Achievement. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 53, 482-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022146512462888

[73]   Mendoza, P. (2012). The Effect of Debt and Working While Enrolled on Baccalaureate Completion: A Counterfactual Analysis. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 42, 25-59.

[74]   Nam, Y., & Huang, J. (2009). Equal Opportunity for All? Parental Economic Resources and Children’s Educational Attainment. Children and Children Services Review, 31, 625-634.

[75]   National Center for Educational Statistics (2013). The Condition of Education 2013 (NCES 2013-037). Institutional Retention and Graduation Rates for Undergraduate Students. US Department of Education.
http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=40.

[76]   Nilsson, P. (2008). Does a Pint a Day Affect Your Child’s Pay? The Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Adult Outcomes. Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice Working Paper CWP22/08, The Institute for Fiscal Studies.
www.cemmap.ac.uk/wps/cwp2208.pdf.

[77]   Nilsson, P. (2009). The Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Lead Exposure: Evidence from Sharp Changes in Local Air Lead Levels Induced by the Phase-Out of Leaded Gasoline. Manuscript, Uppsala: Uppsala University.
www.eea-esem.com/files/ papers/EEA/2010/1722/lead%20exposure.pdf.

[78]   North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511808678

[79]   Oliver, M. L., & Shapiro, T. M. (1995). Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.

[80]   Oreopoulos, P., Page, M. E., & Stevens, A. H. (2006). The Intergenerational Effects of Compulsory Schooling. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 729-760.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/506484

[81]   Oreopoulos, P., Stabile, M., Roos, L., & Walld, R. (2008). The Short, Medium and Long Term Effects of Poor Infant Health. Journal of Human Resources, 43, 88-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jhr.2008.0003

[82]   Ostrove, J. M., & Long, S. M. (2007). Social Class and Belonging: Implications for College Adjustment. The Review of Higher Education, 30, 363-389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2007.0028

[83]   Pew Charitable Trusts (2013). Hard Choices: Navigating the Economic Shock of Unemployment. Washington DC: Pew Charitable Trusts.
www.pewstates.org/

[84]   Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (1990). Beyond Sibship Size: Sibling Density, Sex Composition and Educational Outcomes. Social Forces, 69, 181-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/69.1.181

[85]   Rietveld, C. A., Medland, S. E., Derringer, J. et al. (2013). GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment. Science, 340, 1467-1471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1235488

[86]   Rist, R. C. (1977). On Understanding the Process of Schooling: Contributions of Labeling Theory. In J. Karabel, & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (pp. 292-305). New York: Oxford University Press.

[87]   Royer, H. (2009). Separated at Girth: US Twin Estimates of the Effects of Birth Weight. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1, 49-85.

[88]   Rudolph, F. (1990). The American College and University: A History. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

[89]   Sacerdote, B. (2001). Peer Effects with Random Assignment: Results for Dartmouth Roommates. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 681-704.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144131

[90]   Selingo, J. (2003). HOPE Wanes for Georgia’s Merit-Based Scholarships. Chronicle of Higher Education, A1.

[91]   Sewell, W., & Shah, V. (1977). Socioeconomic Status, Intelligence and Attainment of Higher Education. Sociology of Education, 40, 1-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112184

[92]   Shanahan, M. J., Vaisey, S., Erickson, L. D., & Smolen, A. (2008). Environmental Contingencies and Genetic Propensities: Social Capital, Educational Continuation, and Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD2. American Journal of Sociology, 114, S260S286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/592204

[93]   Shapiro, T. M. (2004). The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press.

[94]   Sherraden, M. (1991). Assets and the Poor: A New American Welfare Policy. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

[95]   Song, H., & Elliott, W. (2011). The Role of Assets in Improving College Attainment among Hispanic Immigrant Youth in the U.S. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 2160-2167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.06.023

[96]   Sorokin, P. (1959). Social and Cultural Mobility. New York: The Free Press.

[97]   Spenner, K., Buchmann, C., & Landerman, L. R. (2005). The Black-White Achievement Gap in the First College Year: Evidence from a New Longitudinal Case Study. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 22, 187-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0276-5624(04)22007-8

[98]   Steelman, L. C., Powell, B., Werum, R., & Carter, S. (2002). Reconsidering the Effects of Sibling Configuration: Recent Advances and Challenges. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 243-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.28.111301.093304

[99]   Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C. S., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen Disadvantage: How American Universities’ Focus on Independence Undermines the Academic Performance of First-Generation College Students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1178-1197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027143

[100]   Stinebrickner, T., & Stinebrickner, R. (2012). Learning about Academic Ability and the College Drop-Out Decision. Journal of Labor Economics, 30, 707-748.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/666525

[101]   Stinebrickner, T., & Stinebrickner, R. (2013). Academic Performance and College Dropout: Using Longitudinal Expectations Data to Estimate a Learning Model. NBER Working Paper 18945.
www.nber.org/papers/w18945.

[102]   Thornton, A., Axinn, W. G., & Teachman, J. D. (1995). The Influence of School Enrollment and Accumulation on Cohabitation and Marriage in Early Adulthood. American Sociological Review, 60, 762-774.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096321

[103]   Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from Higher Education: A Theoretical Synthesis of Recent Research. Review of Educational Research, 45, 89-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543045001089

[104]   Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures for Student Attrition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[105]   Torche, F. (2011). Is a College Degree Still the Great Equalizer? Intergenerational Mobility across Levels in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 763-807.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/661904

[106]   Walpole, M. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and College: How SES Affects College Experiences and Outcomes. The Review of Higher Education, 27, 45-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2003.0044

[107]   Wells, R. (2008). The Effects of Social and Cultural Capital on Student Persistence: Are Community College More Meritocratic? Community College Review, 36, 25-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091552108319604

[108]   Wilkinson, R. G. (1997). Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Health Inequalities: Relative or Absolute Material Standards? British Medical Journal, 314, 591-595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7080.591

[109]   Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass and Public Policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[110]   Woo, J. H., & Choy, S. P. (2011). Merit Aid for Undergraduates: Trends from 1995-1996 to 2007-2008 (NCES 2012-160). US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

[111]   Zhan, M., & Sherraden, M. (2011). Assets and Liabilities, Educational Expectations and Children’s College Degree Attainment. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 846-854.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.12.006

 
 
Top