ABSTRACT Presently, several different graft materials are employed in regenerative or corrective bone surgery. However current misconceptions about these biomaterials, their use and risks may compromise their correct application and development. To unveil these misconceptions, this work briefly reviewed concepts about bone remodeling, grafts classification and manufacturing processes, with a special focus on calcium phosphate materials as an example of a current employed biomaterial. Thus a search on the last decade was performed in Medline, LILACS, Scielo and other scientific electronic libraries using as keywords biomaterials, bone remodeling, regeneration, biocompatible materials, hydroxyapatite and therapeutic risks. Our search showed not only an accelerated biotechnological development that brought significant advances to biomaterials use on bone remodeling treatments but also several therapeutic risks that should not be ignored. The biomaterials specificity and limitations to clinical application point to the current need for developing safer products with better interactions with the biological microenvironments.
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