JEAS  Vol.4 No.3 , September 2014
Removal of Safranin-O from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Kaolinite Clay
ABSTRACT
In this study, Natural Raw Kaolinite (NRK) clay was used as an adsorbent for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of a cationic dye Safranine-O, also known as Basic Red 2 (BR2) from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and contact time on the adsorption capacity were evaluated and the adsorbent was characterized by XRD, BET and FTIR. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and also followed intraparticle diffusion model revealing that diffusion is not only the rate-controlling step. The Langmuir Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. The Langmuir model agrees with experimental data well. The activation energy, change of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of BR2 onto NRK.

Cite this paper
Adebowale, K. , Olu-Owolabi, B. and Chigbundu, E. (2014) Removal of Safranin-O from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Kaolinite Clay. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 4, 89-104. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2014.43010.
References
[1]   Chiou, M.-S. and Li, H.-Y. (2003) Adsorption Behavior of Reactive Dyes in Aqueous Solution on Chemical Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads. Chemosphere, 50, 1095-1105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00636-7

[2]   Ozcan, A.S., Erdem, B. and Ozcan, A. (2005) Adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from Aqueous Solutions onto BTMA-Bentonite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 266, 73-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.06.001

[3]   Sun, Q.Y. and Yang, L.Z. (2003) The Adsorption of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Modified Peat-Resin Particle. Water Research, 37, 1535-1544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00520-1

[4]   Ozacar, M. and Sengil, I.A. (2002) Adsorption of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Calcined Alunite and Granular Activated Carbon. Adsorption, 8, 301-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021585413857

[5]   Ozacar, M. and Sengil, I.A. (2003) Adsorption of Reactive Dyes on Calcined Alunite from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B98, 211-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00358-8

[6]   Robinson, T., McMullan, G., Marchant, R. and Nigam, P. (2001) Remediation of Dyes in Textile Effluent: A Critical Review on Current Treatment Technologies with a Proposed Alternative. Bioresource Technology, 77, 247-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00080-8

[7]   Malik, P.K. (2003) Use of Activated Carbons Prepared from Sawdust and Rice-Husk for Adsorption of Acid Dyes: A Case Study of Acid Yellow 36. Dyes Pigments, 56, 239-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0143-7208(02)00159-6

[8]   Al-Futaisi, A., Jamrah, A. and Al-Hanai, R. (2007) Aspects of Cationic Dye Molecule Adsorption to Palygorskite. Desalination, 214, 327-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.10.024

[9]   Eren, E. and Afsin, B. (2007) Investigation of a Basic Dye Adsorption from Aqueous Solution onto Raw and Pre-Treated Sepiolite Surfaces. Dyes Pigments, 73, 162-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2005.11.004

[10]   Yuvuz, O. Altunkayank, Y. and Guzel, F. (2003) Removal of Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Manganese from Aqueous Solution by Kaolinite. Water Research, 37, 948-952. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00409-8

[11]   Tertre, E., Berger, G., Castet, S., Loubet, M. and Giffaut, E. (2005) Experimental Sorption of Ni2+, Cs+ and Ln3+ onto a Montmorillonite up to 150 C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 4937-4948.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2005.04.024

[12]   Coppin, F., Berger, G., Bauer, A., Castet, S. and Loubet, M. (2002) Sorption of Lanthanides on Smectite and Kaolinite. Chemical Geology, 182, 57-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(01)00283-2

[13]   Yildiz, N., Gönülsena, R., Koyuncu, H. and Çalimlia, A. (2005) Adsorption of Benzoic Acid and Hydroquinone by Organically Modified Bentonites. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 260, 87-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.03.006

[14]   Wang, S. and Ariyanto, E. (2007) Competitive Adsorption of Malachite Green and Pb Ions on Natural Zeolite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 314, 25-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.05.032

[15]   Ghosh, D. and Bhattacharyya, K.G. (2002) Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Kaolinite. Applied Clay Science, 20, 295-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1317(01)00081-3

[16]   Ramasamy, V. and Anandalakshmi, K. (2008) The Determination of Kaolinite Clay Content in Limestones of Western Tamil Nadu by Methylene Blue Adsorption Using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 70, 25-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2007.07.008

[17]   Robinson, T., McMullan, G., Marchant, R. and Nigam, P. (2001) Remediation of Dyes in Textile Effluent: A Critical Review on Current Treatment Technologies with a Proposed Alternative. Bioresource Technology, 77, 247-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00080-8

[18]   Gokturk, S. and Kalu, S. (2008) Removal of Selected Organic Compounds in Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 1, 111-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jest.2008.111.123

[19]   Malekbala, M.R., Soltani, S.M., Yazdi, S.K. and Hosseini, S. (2012) Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Safranin Adsorption on Alkali-Treated Seed Integuments. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 3, 160-166.

[20]   Safarík, I., Nymburská, K. and Safaríková, M. (1997) Adsorption of Water-Soluble Organic Dyes on Magnetic Charcoal. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 69, 1-4.

[21]   Moore, D.M. and Reynolds Jr., R.C. (1989) X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 179-201.

[22]   Gürses, A., Dogarc, C., Yalcina, M., Acikyildiz, M., Bayrak, R. and Karaca, S. (2006) The Adsorption Kinetics of the Cationic Dye, Methylene Blue, Onto Clay. Journal of Hazardous Material, 131, 217-228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.09.036

[23]   Önal, Y., Akmil-Basar, C. and Sarici-Özdemir, Ç. (2007) Investigation Kinetics Mechanisms of Adsorption Malachite Green onto Activated Carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146, 194-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.12.006

[24]   Mall, I.D., Srivastava, V.C., Agarwal, N.K. and Mishra, I.M. (2005) Removal of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash and Activated Carbon: Kinetic Study and Equilibrium Isotherm Analyses. Chemosphere, 61, 492-501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.03.065

[25]   Langmuir, I. (1918) The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surface of Glass, Mica and Platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40, 1361-1403.

[26]   Sivaraj, R., Namasivayam, C. and Kadirvelu, K. (2001) Orange Peel as an Adsorbent in the Removal of Acid Violet 17 (Acid Dye) from Aqueous Solutions. Waste Management, 21, 105-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(00)00076-3

[27]   Dubinin, M.M. and Radushkevich, L.V. (1947) The Equation of the Characteristic Curve of Activated Charcoal. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Physical Chemistry Section, 55, 331.

[28]   Patel, H.A., Somani, R.S., Bajaj, H.C. and Jasra, R.V. (2007) Preparation and Characterization of Phosphonium Montmorillonite with Enhanced Thermal Stability. Applied Clay Science, 35, 194-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2006.09.012

[29]   Unuabonah, E.I., Olu-Owolabi, B.I., Adebowale, K.O. and Yang, L.Z. (2008) Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Polyvinyl Alcohol-Modified Kaolinite Clay: A Novel Nano-Clay Adsorbent. Adsorption Science and Technology, 26, 383-405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/0263-6174.26.6.383

[30]   Özcan, A.S., Erdem, B. and Özcan, A. (2005) Adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from Aqueous Solutions onto BTMA-Bentonite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 266, 73-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.06.001

[31]   Quek, S.Y. and Al-Duri, B. (2007) Application of Film-Pore Diffusion Model for the Adsorption of Metal Ions on Coir in a Fixed-Bed Column. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 46, 477-485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2006.06.019

[32]   Özcan, A.S., Erdem, B. and Özcan, A. (2004) Adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from Aqueous Solutions onto Na-Bentonite and DTMA-Bentonite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 280, 44-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.07.035

[33]   Karim, A.B., Mounir, B., Hachkar, M., Bakasse, M. and Yaacoubi, A. (2009) Removal of Basic Red 46 Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Moroccan Clay. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 304-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.028

[34]   Janos, P., Buchtová, H. and Ryznarová, M. (2003) Sorption of Dyes from Aqueous Solutions onto Fly Ash. Water Research, 37, 4938-4944.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.08.011

[35]   Khraisheh, M.A.M., Al-Ghouti, M.A., Allen, S.J. and Ahmad, M.N. (2005) Effect of OH and Silanol Groups in the Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solution Using Diatomite. Water Research, 39, 922-932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.12.008

[36]   Porkodi, K. and Kumar, K.V. (2007) Equilibrium, Kinetics and Mechanism Modeling and Simulation of Basic and Acid Dyes Sorption onto Jute Fiber Carbon: Eosin Yellow, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet Single Component Systems. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 143, 311-327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.09.029

[37]   Tahir, S.S. and Rauf, N. (2006) Removal of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Bentonite Clay. Chemosphere, 63, 1842-1848.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.10.033

[38]   Özcan, A., Öncü, E.M. and Özcan, A.S. (2006) Adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from Aqueous Solutions onto DEDMA-Sepiolite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 129, 244-252.

[39]   Tsai, W.T., Hsu, H.C., Su, T.Y., Lin, K.Y., Lin, C.M. and Dai, T.H. (2007) The Adsorption of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Acid-Activated Andesite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147, 1056-1062.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.141

[40]   Ofomaja, A.E. (2007) Kinetics and Mechanism of Methylene Blue Sorption onto Palm Kernel Fibre. Process Biochemistry, 42, 16-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.07.005

[41]   Kannan, N. and Sundaram, M.M. (2001) Kinetics and Mechanism of Removal of Methylene Blue by Adsorption on Various Carbons—A Comparative Study. Dyes and Pigments, 51, 25-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0143-7208(01)00056-0

[42]   Bhattacharyya, K.G. and Sharma, A. (2004) Azadirachta indica Leaf Powder as an Effective Biosorbent for Dyes: A Case Study with Aqueous Congo Red Solutions. Journal of Environmental Management, 71, 217-229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.03.002

[43]   Chen, J.P., Wu, S. and Chong, K.H. (2003) Surface Modification of a Granular Activated Carbon by Citric Acid for Enhancement of Copper Adsorption. Carbon, 41, 1979-1986.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(03)00197-0

[44]   Naiya, T.K., Chowdhury, P., Bhattacharya, A.K. and Das, S.K. (2009) Saw Dust and Neem Bark as Low-Cost Natural Biosorbent for Adsorptive Removal of Zn(II) and Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 148, 68-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.08.002

[45]   Ozacar, M. and Sengil, I.A. (2005) Adsorption of Metal Complex Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Pine Sawdust. Bioresource Technology, 96, 791-795.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.07.011

[46]   Ahmad, A.A., Hameed, B.H. and Aziz, N. (2007) Adsorption of Direct Dye on Palm Ash: Kinetic and Equilibrium Modeling. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 141, 70-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.06.094

[47]   Atkins, P. (1999) Physical Chemistry. 6th Edition, Oxford University Press, London, 857-864.

 
 
Top