OJINM  Vol.4 No.4 , October 2014
Synthesis of Ceramic Pigments ACr2O4 Using the Non-Conventional Method of Co-Precipitation Assisted by Ultrasound and High Energy Milling
In this research ceramic pigments have been synthesized with crystalline spinel structure and chromium based with a stoichiometry ACr2O4. A was an element with +2 valence metal, in this case, metals were zinc and iron, these pigments have been synthesized by non-conventional methods like the co-precipitation assisted by ultrasound and high milling energy. Pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectrophotometry, and colorimetric CIELab method. Results showed that it was possible to obtain a crystallin desired structure at temperatures below 900&#176C by non-conventional methods. These results showed the advantages of ceramic pigments obtained by alternative routes, because it was possible to have a better control over stoichiometry and colorimetric structure properties. Furthermore, they were obtained at temperatures lower than those used by the traditional ceramic route.

Cite this paper
Nieves, L. , Baena, O. and Tobón, J. (2014) Synthesis of Ceramic Pigments ACr2O4 Using the Non-Conventional Method of Co-Precipitation Assisted by Ultrasound and High Energy Milling. Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials, 4, 54-63. doi: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.44008.
[1]   Escribano, P., Carda, J.B. and Cordoncillo, E. (2001) Colección Enciclopedia Cerámica. Vol. 1, FaenzaEditriceIberica, Castellon, 221.

[2]   Lorenzi, G., Baldi, G., Benedetto, D.F., Faso, V., Lattanzi, P. and Romanelli, M. (2006) Spectroscopic Study of a Ni-Bearing Gahnite Pigment. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 26, 317-321.

[3]   Fernández, A.L. and de Pablo, L. (2002) Formation and the Color Development in Cobalt Spinel Pigments. Pigment and Resin Technology, 31, 350-356.

[4]   Sickafus, K.E. and Wills, J.M. (1999) Structure of Spinel. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 82, 3279-3292.

[5]   Giannakas, A.E., Ladavos, A.K., Armatas, G.S. and Pomonis, P.J. (2007) Surface Properties, Textural Features and Catalytic Performance for NO2 – CO2 Abatement of Spinels MAl2O4 (Mn, Mg, Co and Zn) Developed by Reverse and Bicontinuous Microemulsión Method. Applied Surface Science, 253, 6969-6979.

[6]   Sepelak, V. and Becker, K.D. (2004) Comparison of the Cation Inversion Parameter of the Nanoscale Milled Spinel Ferrites with That of the Quenched Bulk Materials. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 357-377, 861-864.

[7]   Llusar, M., Forés, A., Badenes, J.A., Calbo, J., Tena, M.A. and Monrós, G. (2001) Colour Analysis of Some Cobat-Based Blue Pigments. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 21, 1121-1130.

[8]   de Souza, L.K.C., Zamian, J.R., da Rocha Filho, G.N., Soledade, L.E.B., dos Santos, I.M.G., Souza, A.G., Scheller, T., Angélica, R.S. and da Costa, C.E.F. (2009) Blue Pigments Based on CoxZn1-xAl2O4 Spinels Synthesized by the Polymeric Precursor Method. Dyes and Pigments, 81, 187-192.

[9]   Suzuki, T., Nagai, H., Nohara, M. and Takagi, H. (2007) Melting of Antiferromagnetic Ordering in Spinel Oxide CoAl2O4. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 19, 145265.

[10]   Vijaya, J.J., Kennedy, L.J., Sekaran, G., Jeyaraj, B., Nagaraja, K.S. (2007) Effect of Sr Addition on the Humidity Sensing Properties of CoAl2O4 Composites. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 123, 211-217.

[11]   Britto, S., Radha, A.V., Ravishankar, N. and Vishnu, K.P. (2007) Solution Decomposition of the Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Al. Solid State Sciences, 9, 279-286.

[12]   Chavarriaga, E.A., Betancur, N., Montoya, J.F. and Restrepo, O.J. (2012) Síntesis y caracterización de pigmentos tipo espinela CuCr2O4 a través del método autocombustión en solución. Revista Lasallista de Investigación, 9, 62-70.

[13]   Chen, Z., Shi, E., Zheng, Y., Xiao, B. and Zhuang, J. (2003) Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanosized CoAl2O4 on ZnAl2O4 Seed Crystallites. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 86, 1058-1060.

[14]   Kakihana, M. (1996) Invited Review “Sol-Gel” Preparation of High Temperature Superconducting Oxides. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 6, 7-55.

[15]   Lessing, P.A. (1989) Mixed-Cation Oxide Powders via Polymeric Precursors. American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 68, 1002-1007.

[16]   Souza, S.C., Santos, I.M.G., Silva, R.S., Cássia-Santos, M.R., Soledade, L.E.B., Souza, A.G., Lima, S.J.G. and Longo, E. (2005) Influence of pH on Iron Doped Zn2TiO4 Pigments. Journal of Thermal Analysis Calorimetry, 79, 451-454.

[17]   Visinescu, D., Paraschiv, C., Ianculescu, A., Jurca, B., Vasile, B. and Carp, O. (2010) The Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Nanosized CoxZn1-xAl2O4 Blue Pigments. Dyes and Pigments, 87, 125-131.

[18]   Zhu, C., Martin, S., Ford, R. and Nuhfer, N. (2003) Experimental and Modeling Studies of Coprecipitation as an Attenuation Mechanism for Radionuclides, Metals and Metalloid Mobility. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 5, 5-15.

[19]   Kumar, D. and Challa, S.S.R. (2009) Magnetic Nanomaterials. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim.

[20]   Avvakumov, E., Senna, M. and Kosova, N. (2002) Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis: A Basis for New Chemical Technologies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

[21]   Cannio, M. and Bondioli, F. (2012) Mechanical Activation of Raw Materials in the Synthesis of Fe2O3-ZrSiO4 Inclusion Pigment. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 32, 643-647.

[22]   ASTM E1349-06 Standard Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry.