GM  Vol.4 No.4 , October 2014
Shale Stone and Fly Ash Landfill Use in Landslide Hazardous Area in Sirnak City with Foam Concrete
Abstract: Sirnak City and the surrounding areas are on steeper slopes. There are sliding large land masses or rocks. Underground water and harsh climatic conditions contain high risk hazard areas in urban living site with higher population density. In order to eliminate landslides and related events, significant precautions should be taken. The mapping of landslide risk may ease to take precautions. Even the application of landfill rock may reduce water content of soil. In this research, fly ash and Mine Waste shale stone were used with low density foam concrete. Waste mixture at certain proportions decreased cement use. Shale stone as fine aggregate instead of fly ash in specific proportions improved mechanical strength and porosity. Hence landslide hazardous area could be safer for urban living.
Cite this paper: Tosun, Y. (2014) Shale Stone and Fly Ash Landfill Use in Landslide Hazardous Area in Sirnak City with Foam Concrete. Geomaterials, 4, 141-150. doi: 10.4236/gm.2014.44014.

[1]   [1] Bishop, A.W. (1955) The Use of the Slip Circle in the Stability Analysis of Earth Slopes. Geotechnique, 5, 7-17.

[2]   Cernica, J.N. (1995) Geotechnical Engineering: Soil Mechanics. John Wiley and Sons Inc., Canada.

[3]   Das, B.M. (1994) Principles of Geotechnical Engineering. PWS Publishing Company, USA.

[4]   Dramis, F. and Sorriso-Valvo, M. (1994) Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations, Related Landslides and Tectonics. Engineering Geology, 38, 231-243.

[5]   Höek, E. (1970) Estimating the Stability of Excavated Slopes in Opencast Mines. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, A105, A132.

[6]   Höek, E. and Bray, J.W. (1977) Rock Slope Engineering. Stephen Austin and Sons Ltd., Hertford.

[7]   Hoek, E. (2013) Practical Rock Engineering. Hoek Notes by Evert Hoek.

[8]   Hutchinson, J.N. (1995) Landslide Hazard Assessment. Keynote Paper. In: Bell, D.H., Ed., Landslides, Proceeding of 6th International Symposium on Landslides, Christchurch, Vol. 1, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1805-1841.

[9]   Lambe, W.T. and Whitman, R.V. (1969) Soil Mechanics. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[10]   Langan, B.W., Weng, K. and Ward, M.A. (2002) Effect of Silica Fume and Fly Ash on Heat of Hydration of Portland Cement. Cement and Concrete Research, 32, 1045-1051.

[11]   Pasamehmetoglu, A.G., Özgenoglu, A. and Karpuz, C. (1991) Rock Slope Stability. 2nd Edition, T.M.M.O.B Mining Engineering Bureau Publisher, Ankara.

[12]   Park, C.K., Noh, M.H. and Park, T.H. (2005) Rheological Properties of Cementitious Materials Containing Mineral Admixtures. Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 842-849.

[13]   Bouzoubaa, N., Bilodeau, A., Sivasundaram, V., Fournier, B. and Golden, D.M. (2004) Development of Ternary Blends of High-Performance Concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 101, 19-29.

[14]   Chindaprasirt, P., Homwuttiwong, S. and Sirivivatnanon, V. (2004) Influence of Fly Ash Fineness on Strength, Drying Shrinkage and Sulfate Resistance of Blended Cement Mortar. Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 1087-1092.

[15]   Hussin, M.W. and Awal, A.S.M.A. (1996) Palm Oil Fuel Ash—A Potential Pozzolanic Material in Concrete Construction. Proceedings of the International Conference on Urban Engineering in Asian Cities in the 21st Century, Bangkok, 20-23 November 1996, D361-D366.

[16]   Isaia, G.C., Gastaldini, A.L.G. and Moraes, R. (2003) Physical and Pozzolanic Action of Mineral Additions on the Mechanical Strength of High-Performance Concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25, 69-76.

[17]   Kiattikomol, K., Jaturapitakkul, C., Songpiriyakij, S. and Chutubtim, S. (2001) Study of Ground Coarse Fly Ashes with Different Finenesses from Various Sources as Pozzolanic Materials. Cement and Concrete Composites, 23, 335-343.

[18]   Kim, H.K., Jeon, J.H. and Lee, H.K. (2012) Workability, and Mechanical, Acoustic and Thermal Properties of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with a High Volume of Entrained Air. Construction and Building Materials, 29, 193-200.

[19]   Chen, X., Yan, Y., Liu, Y.Z. and Hu, Z.H. (2014) Utilization of Circulating Fluidized Bed Fly Ash for Preparation of Foam Concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 54, 137-146.

[20]   Ranjani, G.I.S. and Ramamuthy, K. (2012) Behaviour of Foam Concrete under Sulphate Environments. Cement & Concrete Composites, 34, 825-834.

[21]   Liu, M.Y.J., Alengram, U.J., Jumaat, M.Z. and Mo, K.H. (2014) Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity, Mechanical and Transport Properties of Lightweight Aggregate Foamed Geopolymer Concrete. Energy and Buildings, 72, 238-245.

[22]   Xia, Y.Q., Yan, Y. and Hu, Z.H. (2013) Utilization of Circulating Fluidized Bed Fly Ash in Preparing Non-Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Production. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 1461-1467.

[23]   Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C. and Kiattikomol, K. (2007) From Pozzolan of Influence on Mechanical Properties of Various By-Product Materials High-Strength Concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 1589-1598.

[24]   Moulien, M. and Khelafib, H. (2008) Performance Characteristics of the Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan. Building and Environment, 43, 31-36.

[25]   Demirbog, R., Orung, I. and Rose, R. (2001) Effects of Expanded Perlite Aggregate and Mineral Admixtures on the Compressive Strength of Low-Density Concretes. Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 1627-1632.

[26]   Chen, B. and Liu, J.Y. (2008) Application of Experimental in Lightweight Concrete Admixtures with Mineral High Strength and Workability. Construction and Building Materials, 22, 655-659.

[27]   Anderson, M.G. and Richards, K.S. (1982) Slope Stability. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.

[28]   Anonymous (2013) GEO5—Engineering Manuals—Part 1, Part 2.

[29]   Anonymous (2009) GEO5—FEM—Theoretical Guide.

[30]   Anonymous (2012) Sirnak City Bureau Reports. Sirnak.

[31]   ASTM (1990) Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils under Consolidated Drained Condition. West Conshohocken, D3080-90.

[32]   ASTM (1985) Standart Specifications for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Puzzolan for Use as Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete. ASTM, Philadelphia, ASTM C 618-85.

[33]   ASTM (1999) Standard Test Method for Time of Setting of Concrete Mixtures by Penetration Resistance. Pennsylvania, ASTM C 403.

[34]   Görög, P. and Török, á. (2006) Stability Problems of Abandoned Clay Pits in Budapest. IAEG2006 P295, The Geological Society of London, London.

[35]   Görög, P. and Török, á. (2007) Slope Stability Assessment of Weathered Clay by Using Field Data and Computer Modeling: A Case Study from Budapest. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 7, 417-422.

[36]   Pruska, J. (2009) Comparison of Geotechnic Softwares—Geo FEM, Plaxis, Z-Soil. In: Vanícek, et al., Eds., XIII ECSMGE, Vol. 2, CGtS, Prague.

[37]   Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C. and Kiattikomol, K. (2007) Influence of Pozzolan from Various By-Product Materials on Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 21, 1589-1598.

[38]   Vaneckova, V., Laurin, J. and Pruska, J. (2011) Sheeting Wall Analysis by the Method of Dependent Pressures. Geotech, Hanoi, 7.

[39]   Wiley, L. (1987) Slope Stability Geotechnical Engineering and Geomorphology. England.