AJPS  Vol.5 No.19 , September 2014
Tree Crown Variation and Seasonal in the Phenolic Compounds Content of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart) Coville Leaves
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare phenolic compounds contents between different positions within the crown and between collection periods, and to evaluate the tannin contents by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The collections were performed in Lavras, in the southern region of the Brazilian state Minas Gerais. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (factorial 3 × 4); the first factor being the position (base, middle, top); and the months, the second factor (February, May, September and December). We verified that the leaves of S. adstringens present higher total phenolic and tannin contents at the top (23.05% and 18.23%) and base (21.42% and 16.61%) of the crown, in May (25.79% and 20.85%) and September (25.57% and 20.50%), respectively. There was no difference in the residual phenol and flavonoid contents between the positions within the crown or in the months of collection. These facts suggest that within the crown and climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in Stryphnodendron adstringens.
Cite this paper: Oliveira Ribeiro, A. , Goulart, S. , Mori, F. and Fonseca Castro, A. (2014) Tree Crown Variation and Seasonal in the Phenolic Compounds Content of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart) Coville Leaves. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2904-2912. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.519305.

[1]   Ratter, J.A., Ribeiro, J.F. and Bridgwater, S. (2000) Woody Flora Distribution of the Cerrado Biome: Phytogeography and Conservation Priorities. In: Cavalcanti, T.B. and Walter, B.M.T., Eds., Tópicos atuais em botanica, Sociedade Botanica do Brasil/Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília,12, 340-342.

[2]   Klink, C.A. and Machado, R.B. (2005) Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado. Conservation Biology, 19, 707-713.

[3]   Oliveira, A.L.S. and Figueiredo, A.D.L. (2007) Prospecção Fitoquímica das folhas de Stryphnodendron adstrigens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae). Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 5, 384-386.

[4]   Audi, E.A., Toledo, D.P., Peres, P.G., Kimura, E., Pereira, W.K., de Mello, J.C., et al. (1999) Gastric Antiulcerogenic Effects of Stryphnodendron adstringens in Rats. Phytotherapy Research, 13, 264-246.<264::AID-PTR443>3.0.CO;2-R

[5]   Martins, D.T., Lima, J.C. and Rao, V.S. (2002) The Acetone Soluble Fraction from Bark Extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville Inhibits Gastric Acid Secretion and Experimental Gastric Ulceration in Rats. Phytotherapy Research, 16, 427-431.

[6]   Herzog-Soares, J.D. and Alves, R.K. (2002) Trypanocidal Activity in Vivo of Stryphnodendron adstringens (True Barbatimão) and Caryocar brasiliensis (Pequi). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 12, 2-4.

[7]   Audi, E.A. (2004) Biological Activity and Quality Control of Extract and Stem Bark from Stryphnodendron adstringens. Acta Farm Bonaer, 23, 328-333.

[8]   Ishida, K., de Mello, J.C., Cortez, D.A., Filho, B.P., Ueda-Nakamura, T. and Nakamura, C.V. (2006) Influence of Tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens on Growth and Virulence Factors of Candida albicans. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 58, 942-949.

[9]   Santos, V.R., Gomes, R.T., Oliveira, R.R., Cortés, M.E. and Brandão, M.G.L. (2009) Susceptibility of Oral Pathogenic Microorganisms to Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão). International Journal of Dentistry, 8, 1-5.

[10]   Sanches, A.C., Lopes, G.C., Nakamura, C.V., Dias Filho, B.P. and Mello, J.C. (2005) Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Extracts and Condensed Tannins from Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 41, 101-107.

[11]   Souza, T.M., Severi, J.A., Silva, V.Y. and Pietro, R.C. (2007) Bioprospecting Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae) Barks. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 28, 221-226.

[12]   Shimizu, B.J., Eurides, D., Beletti, M.E., Freitas, P.M.C. and Chang, R. (2009) 5% (w/w) Extract Barbatimão in Hydroxyethylcellulose Applied to Skin Wounds in Mice Experimentally Produced Gel. Vet Not, 15, 21-27.

[13]   Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2006) Fisiologia Vegetal. 3rd Edition, Artmed, Porto Alegre, 127-145.

[14]   Battestin, V., Matsuda, L.K. and Macedo, G.A. (2004) Fontes e aplicações de taninos e tanases em alimentos. Alimentos e Nutrição, 15, 63-72.

[15]   Monteiro, J.M.M., Albuquerque, U.P., Araujo, E.L. and Amorim, E.L.C. (2005) Taninos: Uma abordagem da química à ecologia. Química Nova, 28, 892-896.

[16]   Gobbo-Neto, L. and Lopes, N.P. (2007) Plantas medicinais: Fatores de influência no conteúdo de metabólitos secundários. Química Nova, 30, 374-381.

[17]   Araujo, W.L., Dias, P.C., Moraes, G.A.B.K., Celin, E.F., Cunha, R.L., Barros, R.S. and DaMatta, F.M. (2008) Limitations to Photosynthesis in Coffee Leaves from Different Canopy Positions. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 46, 884-890.

[18]   Castro, A.H.F., Paiva, R., de Alvarenga, A.A. and Vitor, S.M.M.V. (2009) Calogênese e teores de fenóis e taninos totais em barbatimão [Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville]. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 33, 385-390.

[19]   Amorim, E.L.C., Nascimento, J.E., Monteiro, J.M., Sobrinho, T.J.S.P., Araújo, T.A.S. and Albuquerque, U.P. (2008) A Simple and Accurate Procedure for the Determination of Tannin and Flavonoid Levels and Some Applications in Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology. Functional Ecosystems and Communities, 21, 88-94.

[20]   Mace, M.E. and Howell, C.R. (1974) Histochemistry and Identification of Condensed Tannin Precursor in Roots of Cotton Seedlings. Canadian Journal Botany, 52, 2423-2426.

[21]   Stahl, E. and Schild, W. (1981) Pharmazeutiche Biologie 4: Drogennanalyse II. In: Fisher, G., Ed., Innhatsstoffe und isolieniongen, Verlog, Stuttgart, 126-127.

[22]   Ferreira, D.F. (2011) Sisvar: A Computer Statistical Analysis System. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 35, 1039-1042.

[23]   Agati, G., Brunetti, C., Di Ferdinando, M., Ferrini, F., Pollastri, S. and Tattini, M. (2013) Functional Roles of Flavonoids in Photoprotection: New Evidence, Lessons from the Past. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 72, 35-45.

[24]   Jaakola, L., Määttä-Riihinen, K., Kärenlampi, S. and Hohtola, A. (2004) Activation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis by Solar Radiation in Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Leaves. Planta, 218, 721-728.

[25]   Santos, R.M., Oliveira, M.S., Ferri, P.H. and Santos, S.C. (201) Seasonal Variation in the Phenol Content of Eugenia uniflora L. Leaves. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 13, 85-89.

[26]   Salminen, J.P., Ossipov, V., Haukioja, E. and Pihlaja, K. (2001) Seasonal Variation in the Content of Hydrolysable Tannins in Leaves of Betula pubescens. Phytochemistry, 57, 15-22.

[27]   Salminen, J.P., Roslin, T., Karonen, M., Sinkkonen, J., Pihlaja, K. and Pulkkinen, P. (2004) Seasonal Variation in the Content of Hydrolysable Tannins, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Proanthocyanidins in Oak Leaves. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 30, 1693-1711.

[28]   Lewis, J.L. and Starkey, R.L. (1968) Vegetable Tannins, Their Decomposition and Effects on Decomposition of Some Organic Compounds. Soil Science, 106, 241-247.

[29]   Larcher, W. (2006) Ecofisiologia Vegetal. RiMa, São Carlos, 525-550.

[30]   Glasenapp, J.S. (2007) Estrutura genética e fenóis totais de populações naturais de barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens). Dissertação, Mestrado em Genética e Melhoramento de Plantas, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, 65-84.

[31]   Jacobson, T.K.B., Garcia, J., Santos, S.C., Duarte, J.B., Farias, J.G. and Kliemann, M. (2005) Influência de fatores edáficos na produção de fenóis totais e taninos de duas espécies de barbatimão (Stryphnodendron sp.). Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, 35, 163-169.

[32]   Jones, D.H. (1984) Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: Regulation of Its Induction, and Its Role in Plant Development. Phytochemistry, 23, 1349-1359.

[33]   Evans, W.C. (1996) Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy. WB Saunders, London, 520-521.

[34]   Treutter, D. (2010) Managing Phenol Contents in Crop Plants by Phytochemical Farming and Breeding—Visions and Constraints. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 11, 807-857.

[35]   Xu, C., Zhang, Y., Zhu, L., Huang, Y. and Lu, J. (2011) Influence of Growing Season on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Grape Berries from Vines Grown in Subtropical Climate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 1078-1086.

[36]   Otieno, D.O., Schmidt, M.W.T., Kurz-Besson, C., Vale, R.L., Pereira, J.S. and Tenhunen, J.D. (2007) Regulation of Transpirational Water Loss in Quercus suber Trees in a Mediterranean-Type Ecosystem. Tree Physiology, 27, 1179-1187.

[37]   Pimpão, R.C.S. (2009) Compostos fenólicos e sua actividade antioxidante em espécies de Juniperus: Análise da produção sazonal e sob condições de stresse. Dissertação, Mestrado em Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, 55-64.

[38]   Koricheva, J., Larsson, S., Haukioja, E. and Keinanen, M. (1998) Regulation of Woody Plant Secondary Metabolism by Resource Availability: Hypothesis Testing by Means of Meta-Analysis. Oikos, 83, 212-226.