AJAC  Vol.5 No.13 , September 2014
Copper and Mercury in Food, Biological and Pharmaceutical Samples: Spectrophotometric Estimation as Cu(DDTC)2
Abstract: An alternative spectrophotometric method was optimized and validated for the estimation of mercury using diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), a common reagent, widely used for the preconcentration and isolation of metal ions in complex matrices followed by their estimation by varied techniques. Diethyldithiocarbamate forms yellow Cu(DDTC)2 with copper and white Hg(DDTC)2 with mercury (having d10 system) which are extracted in CCl4. The UV-visible spectrum of Cu(DDTC)2 is very stable at pH 5.0 and has a maximum absorption (λmax) at 435 nm. Hg(DDTC)2 is more stable than Cu(DDTC)2. Estimation of mercury is based on a quantitative displacement of Cu(II) of Cu(DDTC)2 with the addition of mercury followed by the measurement of reduced absorbance. Primarily, method was optimized and validated for the estimation of copper. Therefore, simultaneous determination of Cu(II) and Hg(II) in mixture is proposed fractionating the extract. The molar specific coefficient (ε) for the mercury was 1.4 × 104 mol﹣1·L·cm﹣1 and for copper was 3.16 × 105 mol﹣1·L·cm﹣1 at 435 nm. The detection limits of Cu2+ and Hg2+ were 0.023 μg·mL﹣1 and 0.029 μg·mL﹣1, respectively. The calibration curve shows good linearity of 0.02 - 12.0 and 0.02 - 15.0 μg·mL﹣1 for the Cu2+ and Hg2+ determination, respectively. Proposed technique was applied to food, biological and pharmaceutical samples for the determination of Cu(II) and Hg(II).
Cite this paper: Uddin, M. , Shah, N. , Hossain, M. and Islam, M. (2014) Copper and Mercury in Food, Biological and Pharmaceutical Samples: Spectrophotometric Estimation as Cu(DDTC)2. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 838-850. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.513093.

[1]   Fergusson, J.E. (1990) The Heavy Elements: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 85-547.

[2]   Venugopal, B. and Lucky, T.D. (1978) Metal Toxicity in Mammals. Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York, 86-99.

[3]   Turkoglu, O. and Soylak, M. (2005) Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper in Natural Waters and Pharmaceutical Samples with Chloro(phenyl) glyoxime. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 52, 575-579.

[4]   Moreno-Cid, A. and Yebra, M.C. (2002) Flow Injection Determination of Copper in Mussels by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after On-Line Continuous Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 57, 967-974.

[5]   Cindric, I.J., Krizman, I., Zeiner, M., Kampic, S., Medunic, G. and Stingeder, G. (2012) ICP-AES Determination of Minor- and Major Elements in Apples after Microwave Assisted Digestion. Food Chemistry, 135, 2675-2680.

[6]   Alexiu, V., Chirtop, E., Vladescu, L. and Simion, M. (2004) Determination of Mercury in Pharmaceuticals by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Chemical Modifier. Acta Chimica Slovenica, 51, 361-372.

[7]   Han, F.X., Patterson, W.D., Xia, Y., Maruthi, B.B. and Su, Y. (2006) Rapid Determination of Mercury in Plant and Soil Samples Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, a Comparative Study. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 170, 161-171.

[8]   da Silva, M.J., Paim, A.P., Pimentel, M.F., de la Cervera M.L. and Guardia, M. (2010) Determination of Mercury in Rice by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry after Microwave-Assisted Digestion. Analytica Chimica Acta, 667, 43-48.

[9]   Rajawat, D.S., Srivastava, S. and Satsangee, S.P. (2012) Electrochemical Determination of Mercury at Trace Levels Using Eichhornia Crassipes Modified Carbon Paste Electrode. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7, 11456-11469.

[10]   Ahmed, M.J., Jahan, I. and Banoo, S. (2002) A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Copper in Industrial, Environmental, Biological and Soil Samples Using 2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-Thiadiazole. Analytical Sciences, 18, 805-810.

[11]   Ramanjaneyulu, G., Reddy, P.R., Reddy, V.K. and Reddy, T.S. (2008) Direct and Derivative Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper(II) with 5-Bromosalicylaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone. The Open Analytical Chemistry Journal, 2, 78-82.

[12]   Rekha, D., Suvardhan, K., Kumar, K.S., Reddy, P., Jayaraj, B. and Chiranjeevi, P. (2007) Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper(II) in Water and Alloy Samples with 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy Benzaldehyde-4-bromophenyl Hydrazone. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 72, 299-310.

[13]   Reddy, G.C., Devanna, N. and Chandrasekhar, K.B. (2011) Derivative Spectrophotometric Determination of Mercury (ii) Using Diacetyl Monoxime Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone. International Journal of Chemistry, 3, 227-232.

[14]   Khan, H., Ahmed, M.J. and Bhanger, M.I. (2005) A Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Level Mercury Using 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone Solubilized in Micelle. Analytical Sciences, 21, 507-512.

[15]   Cesur, H. (2007) Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Cu(II) Using Freshly Precipitated Lead Diethyldithiocarbamate and Its Spectrophotometric Determination. Chemical Papers, 61, 342-347.

[16]   Uddin, M.N., Salam, M.A. and Hossain, M.A. (2012) Spectrophotometric Measurement of Cu(DDTC)2 for the Simultaneous Determination of Copper and Zinc. Chemosphere, 90, 366-373.

[17]   Uddin, M.N., Chowdhury, D.A. and Islam, J. (2013) Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Mixed-Metal Mixed-Ligand Complexes. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 40, 625-635.

[18]   Skoog, D.A., West, D.M. and Holler, F.J. (1988) Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 5th Edition, Saunders, New York.