ABSTRACT Surface electrical resistivity has been used as a tool in the detection of groundwater contamination. In this work, five geoelectric soundings with two at waste dumpsites have been carried out in Uyo, Southwestern Nigeria to map the gross layered structure of the refuse as well as the extent of groundwater contamination. The geology of the area (Benin Formation) mainly consists of fine-medium-coarse grained sands. The data of five Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES), with a maximum of AB/2=500 m, were analyzed using Hemkler computer program. In general, there exists a common feature in the resistivity variation pattern of high-low-high-low-high in the area. The result shows a wide range of resistivity variation ranging from 2.0 to 60700 ?m. Based on the survey results, the resistivity values less than 75 ?m shows contamination due to waste at Eka street and Udo street. Also, the high resistivity value at mechanic village (60700 ?m) may be related to the waste oil deposit due to the automobile repair activities. A comparison of the resistivity values and the curve types at the dumpsites (Eka street and Udo street) and other locations show that the two dumpsites have an H curve type indicating contaminated zones, while other locations have a K curve type indicating non contaminated zones. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater samples collected in the area was also carried out for some physico-chemical parameters. The results produced higher concentration of conductivity, total dissolved solids and chloride values for water collected at close locations to dumpsites than those far away from the dumpsites: an evidence for a quantitative assessment of groundwater contamination.
Cite this paper
nullO. Akankpo and M. Igboekwe, "Monitoring Groundwater Contamination Using Surface Electrical Resistivity and Geochemical Methods," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2011, pp. 318-324. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.35040.
 G. E. Archie, “The Electrical Resistivity Log as an Aid in Determining Some Reseviour Characteristics,” Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Engrs, Vol. 146, 1942, pp. 54-62.
 K. S. Makey, “Natural Buffers for Sludge Leachate Stabilization,” Groundwater, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1982, pp. 420- 429. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1982.tb02762.x
 J. H. Swartx, “Resistivity Studies of Some Salt-Water Boundaries in the Hawaiian Islands,” Transactions of American Geophysical Union, Vol. 18, 1937, pp. 387- 393.
 K. Cartwright and F. B. Sherman, Jr., “Electrical Earth Resistivity Surveying in Landfill Investigations,” Engineering and Soils Engineering Symposium Proceedings 10th Annual Meeting, Moscow, 1972, pp. 77-92.
 W. F. Kelly, “Geoelectrical Sounding for Delineating Ground-Water Contamination,” Groundwater, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1976, pp. 6-10.
 D. L. Warner, “Preliminary Field Studies Using Earth Resistivity Measurements for Delineating Zones of Contaminated Ground Water,” Groundwater, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1969, pp. 9-16. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1969.tb01262.x
 D. W. Urish, “Salt Source Sleuthing in a Coastal Environment: A Case Study,” Abs., EOS, Amer. Geo. Union, Vol. 61, No. 46, 1980, pp. 955.
 R. L. Stollar and P. Roux, “Earth Resistivity Survey—A Method for Defining Groundwater Contamination,” Groundwater, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1975, pp. 145-150.
 W. O. Winsauer, H. M. Shearin, P. H. Masson and M. Williams, “Resistivity of Brine Saturated Sands in relation to Pore Geometry,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1952, pp. 253- 277.
 I. A. Ema, “The Capital City of Akwa Ibom State,” E-ten Organization, Uyo, 1989.
 E. M. Mbipom, E. E. Okwueze and A. A. Onwuegbuche, “Estimation of Transmissivity Using VES Data from the Mbaise Area of Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Physics, Vol. 85, 1996, pp. 28-32.
 A. N. Ugbaja and A. E. Edet, “Groundwater Pollution near Shallow Waste Dumps in Southern Calabar, South- -Eastern Nigeria,” Global Journal of Geological Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, pp. 199-206.
 A. E. Edet and C. S. Okereke, “Delineation of Shallow Groundwater Aquifers in the Coastal Plain Sand of Calabar Area Using Surface Resistivity and Hydro-Geologi- cal,” Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2002, pp. 433-441. doi:10.1016/S0899-5362(02)00148-3
 D. H. Griffiths and R. D. Barker, “Two Dimensional Resistivity Imaging and Modeling in Areas of Complex Geology,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 29, No. 3-4, 1993, pp. 211-226.
 M. Noel and R. Walker, “Development of an Electrical Tomography System for Imaging Archeological Structures,” Archeometry, Vol. 32, 1970, pp. 767-776.
 G. A. Best and S. L. Ross, “River Pollution Studies,” University Press, Liverpool, 1977.
 C. J. Hemkler, “A VES Modeling Programme for Schlumberger Automatics Analysis Version 0.92,” 1985.
 M. Zamxaka, G. Pironcheva and N. Muyima, “Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Assessment of the Quality of Domestic Water Sources in Selected Rural Communities of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,” Water South Africa, Vol. 30, No. 30, 2004, pp. 333-339.
 A. O. Akankpo, G. T. Akpabio and I. O. Akpabio, “Physicochemistry and Biological Properties of Groundwater samples from Boreholes Sited near Waste Dumps in Uyo, Soutwestern Nigeria,” Natural and Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2009, pp. 156-165.