AAD  Vol.3 No.3 , September 2014
Rivastigmine Restores 5-HT1A Receptor Levels in the Hippocampus of Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice
ABSTRACT
Rivastigmine, a dual acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, is used for symptomatic treatment of patients with mild to moderately severe dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. In the present study, we found that 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) is downregulated, whereas 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is upregulated in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 region by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) in mice. Furthermore, chronic treatment with rivastigmine (1.0 mg/kg) for 2 weeks starting 2 weeks after OBX operation restored the decreased 5-HT1AR and the increased 5-HT2AR levels. To determine whether cholinergic receptor stimulation by rivastigmine is involved in the rivastigmine-induced regulation of 5-HTR levels, we treated the mice with mecamylamine (2.5 mg/kg), or atropine (5.0 mg/kg) with rivastigmine (1.0 mg/kg) once a day for 2 weeks. Notably, the rivastigmine-induced 5-HT1AR upregulation was eliminated by mecamylamine but not by atropine treatments. On the other hand, the restored 5-HT2AR level by rivastigmine was not affected by either mecamylamine or atropine. Treatment with 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1AR agonist improved the decreased 5-HT1AR and the increased 5-HT2AR levels in OBX mice. On the other hand, treatment with TCB-2, a potent 5-HT2AR agonist had no effects on the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR dysregulation in OBX mice. Taken together, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation mediates rivastigmine-induced upregulation of 5-HT1AR. Therefore, we speculate that the increased ACh levels by rivastigmine can stimulate nAChR located on serotonergic nerve terminals and stimulate 5-HT1AR by the enhanced 5-HT release in the hippocampus. The 5-HT1AR stimulation likely mediates the improvement of 5-HT1AR levels as auto-receptor in OBX hippocampus.

Cite this paper
Islam, M. , Moriguchi, S. , Tagashira, H. and Fukunaga, K. (2014) Rivastigmine Restores 5-HT1A Receptor Levels in the Hippocampus of Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, 3, 128-136. doi: 10.4236/aad.2014.33012.
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