ABB  Vol.5 No.10 , September 2014
Antioxidant Properties and Glucan Compositions of Various Crude Extract from Lentinus squarrosulus Mycelial Culture
ABSTRACT
Various crude extracts of Lentinus squarrosulus mushroom mycelium and culture broth were prepared for antioxidant studies, glucan and carbohydrate compound analysis. Crude extract from ethanol, cold and hot water extraction was tested on several complementary test systems namely DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene linoleic acid oxidation, total phenolic compound, total flavonoid compound, total carbohydrate content and total glucan compositions. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts of Lentinus squarrosulus mushroom mycelium and culture broth was determined by 2,2’ diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and β-carotene linoleic acid assay. Crude extracted from culture broth EPS EE recorded the highest radical scavenging effects at 20 mg/mL (85%) which is closer to the control antioxidants (ascorbic acid 97%; BHT 92.4%; BHA 93.6%). Both the ethanol extract (IPS EE and EPS EE) exhibited the highest β-carotene linoleic acid oxidation by recording IC50 values of 0.6 and 0.65 mg/mL respectively. IPS EE (0.59 mg/g) and EPS WE (0.58 mg/g) showed high flavonoid content whereas total phenol content was high in EPS WE (0.85 mg/g) and IPS EE (0.84 mg/g). Total carbohydrate concentrations were high in IPS HWE and IPS CWE with 19.1 and 16.3 mg/mL respectively and these data correlate with the β-glucan content in both extracts. The highest β-glucan content found in IPS CWE and IPS HWE were 12.2 and 11.4% w/w respectively.

Cite this paper
Ahmad, R. , Muniandy, S. , Abdullah Shukri, N. , Usyida Alias, S. , Hamid, A. , Wan Yusoff, W. , Senafi, S. and Daud, F. (2014) Antioxidant Properties and Glucan Compositions of Various Crude Extract from Lentinus squarrosulus Mycelial Culture. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 5, 805-814. doi: 10.4236/abb.2014.510094.
References
[1]   Royce, D.J., Bahler, B.D. and Bahler, C.C. (1990) Enhanced Yield of Shiitake by Saccharide Amendment of the Synthetic Substrate. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56, 479-482.

[2]   Rahayu, A., Al-Shorgani, N.K.N., Hamid, A.A., Yusoff, W.M.W. and Daud, F. (2013) Optimization of Medium Components Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Mycelium Biomass and Exopolysaccharide Production by Lentinus squarrosulus. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 1079-1085.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/abb.2013.412144

[3]   Ohno, N., Adachi, Y., Suzuki, I., Sato, K., Oikawa, S. and Yadomae, T. (1986) Characterization of the Antitumor Glucan Obtained from Liquid-Cultured Grifolafrondosa. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 34, 1709-1715.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.34.1709

[4]   Wang, H. and Tang, T.B. (2000) Isolation of a Novel Ubiquitin-Like Protein from Pleurotus ostreatus Mushroom with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Translation-Inhibitory and Ribonuclease Activities. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 275, 810-816.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.2000.3373

[5]   Opletal, L., Jahodar, L., Chobot, V., Zdansky, P., Lukes, J., Bratova, M., Solichova, D., Blunden, G., Dacke, C.G. and Patel, A.V. (1997) Evidence for the Anti-Hyperlipidaemic Activity of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. British Journal of Biomedical Science, 54, 240-243.

[6]   Cha, W.S., Choi, D.B. and Kang, S.H. (2004) Optimization of Culture Media for Solid-State Culture of Pleurotus ferulae. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 9, 369-373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02933059

[7]   Choi, D.B., Cha, W.S., Kang, S.H. and Lee, B.R. (2004) Effect of Pleurotus ferulae Extracts on Viability of Human Lung Cancer and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 9, 356-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02933057

[8]   Huang, D., Ou, B. and Prior, R.L. (2005) The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1841-1856.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf030723c

[9]   Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1984) Lipid Peroxidation, Oxygen Radicals, Cell Damage, and Antioxidant Therapy. The Lancet, 323, 1396-1397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91886-5

[10]   Yang, J.H., Lin, H.C. and Mau. J.L. (2002) Antioxidant Properties of Several Commercial Mushrooms. Food Chemistry, 77, 229-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00342-9

[11]   Kang, K.A., Chae, S., Lee, K.H., Zhang, R., Jung, M.S., You, H.J., Kim, J.S. and Hyun, J.W. (2005) Antioxidant Effect of Homogentisic Acid on Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Lung Fibroblast Cells. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 10, 556-563.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02932294

[12]   Asfors, K.E. and Ley, K. (1993) Sulfated Polysaccharides in Inflammation. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 121, 201-202.

[13]   Longvah, T. and Deosthale, Y.G. (1998) Compositional and Nutritional Studies on Edible Wild Mushroom from Northeast India. Food Chemistry, 63, 331-334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00026-0

[14]   Wasser, S.P. (2002) Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antitumor and Immunomodulating Polysaccharides. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 60, 258-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-002-1076-7

[15]   Omar, N.A.M., Abdullah, A., Kuppusamy, U.R., Abdullah, M.A. and Sabaratnam, V. (2011) Nutritional Composition, Antioxidant Activities and Antiulcer Potential of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Mycelia Extract. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, Article ID: 539356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/539356

[16]   Bae, J.T., Sinha, J., Park, J.P., Song, C.H. and Yun, J.W. (2000) Optimization of Submerged Culture Conditions for Exobiopolymer Production by Paecilomyces japonica. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10, 482-487.

[17]   Zhang, H., Wang, Z.Y., Yang, L., Yang, X., Wang, X. and Zhang, Z. (2011) In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Derivatives of Polysaccharides Extracted from Auricularia auricular. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12, 3288-3302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms12053288

[18]   Cuendet, M., Hostettmann, K., Potterat, O. and Dyatmiko, W. (1997) Irdiod Glucosidase with Free Radical Scavenging Properties from Fagraea blumei. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 80, 1144-1152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19970800411

[19]   Burits, M. and Bucar, F. (2000) Antioxidant Activity of Nigella sativa Essential Oil. Phytotherapy Research, 14, 323-328.

[20]   Reis, F.S., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L. and Martins, A. (2011) A Comparative Study of Tocopherols Composition and Antioxidant Properties of in Vivo and in Vitro Ectomycorrhizal Fungi. Food Science and Technology, 44, 820-824.

[21]   Dapkevicius, A., Venskutonis, R., Van Beek, T.A. and Linssen, P.H. (1998) Antioxidant Activity of Extracts Obtained by Different Isolation Procedures from Some Aromatic Herbs Grown in Lithuania. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77, 140-146.

[22]   Slinkard, K. and Singleton, V.L. (1977) Total Phenol Analyses: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 28, 49-55.

[23]   Heleno, S.A, Barros, L., Sousa, M.J., Martins, A. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. (2010) Tocopherols Composition of Portoguese Wild Mushrooms with Antioxidant Capacity. Food Chemistry, 119, 1443-1450.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.025

[24]   Park, Y.K., Koo, M.H., Ikegaki, M. and Contado, J.L. (1997) Comparison of the Flavonoid Aglycone Contents of Apis mellifera Propolis from Various Regions of Brazil. Arquivos de Biologiae Technologia, 40, 97-106.

[25]   Fournier, E. (2001) Colorimetric Quatification of Carbohydrates. In: Ronald, E.W., Terry, E.A., Eric, A.D., Michael, H.P., David, S.R., Steven, J.S., Charles, F.S., Denise, M.S. and Peter, S., Eds., Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, E1.1.1-E1.1.8.

[26]   Soares, J.R., Dins, T.C.P., Cunha, A.P. and Almeida, L.M. (1997) Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts of Thymus zygis. Free Radical Research, 26, 469-478.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10715769709084484

[27]   Yang, J.H., Lin, H.C. and Mau, J.L. (2001) Non-Volatile Taste Components of Several Commercial Mushrooms. Food Chemistry, 72, 465-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00262-4

[28]   Mercan, N., Duru, M.E., Turkoglu, A., Gezer, K., Kivrak, I. and Turkoglu, H. (2006) Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Ethanolic Extract from Lepista nuda (Bull.) Cooke. Annals of Microbiology, 56, 339-344.

[29]   Choi, D.B., Park, S.S., Ding, J.L. and Cha, W.S. (2007) Effects of Fomitopsis pinicola Extracts on Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 12, 516-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02931349

[30]   Reis, F.S., Martins, A., Barros, L. and Ferreira, I.C.F.R. (2012) Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Profile of the Most Widely Appreciated Cultivated Mushrooms: A Comparative Study between in Vivo and in Vitro Samples. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, 1201-1207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.02.013

[31]   Turkoglu, A., Duru, M.E., Mercan, N., Kivrak, I. and Gezer, K. (2007) Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murill. Food Chemistry, 101, 267-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.025

[32]   Cheung, L.M., Cheung, C.K. and Ooi, V.E.C. (2003) Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics of Edible Mushroom Extracts. Food Chemistry, 81, 249-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00419-3

[33]   Tanaka, M., Kuei, C.W., Nagashima, Y. and Taguchi, T. (1998) Application of Antioxidative Maillrad Reaction Products from Histidine and Glucose to Sardine Products. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishil, 54, 1409-1414.

[34]   Yen, G.C., Duh, P.D. and Tsai, C.L. (1993) Relationship between Antioxidant Activity and Maturity of Peanut Hulls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41, 67-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00025a015

[35]   Chang, S.T., Wu, J.H., Wang, S.Y., Kang, P.L., Yang, N.S. and Shyur, L.F. (2001) Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Acacia Confuse Bark and Heartwood. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 3420-3424.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0100907

[36]   Kolayli, S., Sahin, H., Aliyazicioglu, R. and Sesli, E. (2012) Phenolic Components and Antioxidant Activity of Three Edible Wild Mushrooms from Trabzon, Turkey. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 48, 137-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10600-012-0182-8

[37]   Mizuno, T., Saito, H., Nishitoba, T. and Kawagashi, H. (1995) Antitumor-Active Substances from Mushrooms. Food Reviews International, 11, 23-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87559129509541018

 
 
Top