SGRE  Vol.2 No.2 , May 2011
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) in Automotive Applications: Environmental Relevance of the Manufacturing Stage
ABSTRACT
This study presents a state of the art of several studies dealing with the environmental impact assessment of fuel cell (FC) vehicles and the comparison with their conventional fossil-fuelled counterparts, by means of the Life Cycle As-sessment (LCA) methodology. Results declare that, depending on the systems characteristics, there are numerous envi-ronmental advantages, but also some disadvantages can be expected. In addition, the significance of the manufac-turing process of the FC, more specifically the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) type, in terms of environmental impact is presented. Finally, CIEMAT’s role in HYCHAIN European project, consisting of supporting early adopters for hydrogen FCs in the transport sector, is highlighted

Cite this paper
nullD. Garraín, Y. Lechón and C. Rúa, "Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) in Automotive Applications: Environmental Relevance of the Manufacturing Stage," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 68-74. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2011.22009.
References
[1]   IEA, “Fuel Cells,” IEA Energy Technology Essentials, 2007. http://www.iea.org/techno/essentials6.pdf

[2]   USDE, “Fuel Cell Handbook,” 7th Edition, EG&G Technical Services, Inc., Morgantown, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2004.

[3]   R. Gerboni, M. Pehnt, P. Viebahn and E. Lavagno (Eds), “Final Report on Technical Data, Costs and Life Cycle Inventories of Fuel Cells,” Deliverable no 9.2 - RS 1a, New Energy Externalities Developments for Sustainability Project, 6th Framework Programme, 2008.

[4]   M. Pehnt, “Life-Cycle Analysis of Fuel System Components,” Handbook of Fuel Cells—Fundamentals, Technology and Applications, Edited by W. Vielstich, H. A. Gasteiger and A. Lamm, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, Vol. 4, Part 13, Chapter 94, 2003, pp. 1293-1317.

[5]   P. Adcock, A. Kells and C. Jackson, “PEM Fuel Cell for Road Vehicles,” Proceedings of the 3rd European Ele-Drive Transportation Conference, International Advanced Mobility Forum, Geneva, 11-13 March 2008.

[6]   N. Meng, M. K. H. Leung, D. Y. C. Leung and K. Sumathy “Prospect of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Transportation,” Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress VIII, 29 August-3 September 2004, Denver.

[7]   J. Larminie and A. Dicks, “Fuel Cell Systems Explained,” 2nd Edition, Wiley, Chichester, 2003.

[8]   M. Granovskii, I. Dincer and M. A. Rosen, “Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2006, pp. 337-352. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2005.10.004

[9]   ISO 14040:2006 Environmental Management—Life Cycle Assessment—Principles and Framework.

[10]   ISO 14044:2006 Environmental Management—Life Cycle Assessment—Requirements and Guidelines.

[11]   CONCAWE/EUCAR/EC-JRC-IES Report, “Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Power trains in the European Context,” Well-to-Wheels Report, Version 2c, March 2007.

[12]   M. Pehnt, “Assessing Future Energy and Transport Systems: The Case of Fuel Cells, Part 2: Environmental Performance,” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2003, pp. 365-378. doi:10.1007/BF02978510

[13]   M. Pehnt, “Life-Cycle Assessment of Fuel Cells Stacks,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2001, pp. 91-101.

[14]   B. Sorensen, “Total Life-Cycle Assessment of PEM Fuel Cell Car,” Paper 3-1189, Proceedings of the 15th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Yokohama, 27 June-2 July 2004.

[15]   J. Ally, “Life Cycle Assessment of the Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Natural Gas and Diesel Bus Transportation Systems in Western Australia,” Murdoch University, Report for the Government of Western Australia Department for Planning and Infrastructure, Perth, 2008.

[16]   M. Granovskii, I. Dincer and M. A. Rosen, “Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2006, pp. 337-352.

[17]   Monografías Enerxe, “PEMFC—Pilas de Combustible de Membrana de Intercambio Protónico,” Monografías Enerxe, Plataforma Tecnolóxica Galega de Enerxía, Vol. 3, 2009. http://www.enerxe.org

[18]   http://fuelcells.org (access in January 2011).

[19]   S. Ramesohl and F. Merten, “Energy System Aspects of Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel in Transport,” Energy Policy, Vol. 34, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1251-1259.

 
 
Top