Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate habitual leisure-time activities (physical and non-physical leisure activities) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and to determine any potential benefits of these activities on cognitive functions and emotional symptoms. Methods: Thirty-two patients with PD and 25 demographically-matched healthy controls participated in the present study. Neuropsychological tests (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, Digit Span Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Japanese Verbal Learning Test), assessment of emotional sym- ptoms, and interviews for confirmation of habitual leisure-time activities were conducted for all participants. Results: Patients with PD significantly showed the lower frequency of both physical and non-physical leisure activities than healthy controls. Compared to patients who engaged in physical leisure activities, patients who did not engage in such activities performed worse on the Trail Making Test (TMT-B, and TMT-B minus A). Moreover, patients who engaged in non-physical leisure activities were less apathetic than patients who did not engage in such activities. Conclusions: Our preliminary study shows that habitual leisure-time activities correlate with cognitive function and emotions in patients with PD. Reducing sedentary life s and promoting habitual leisure-time activities may be helpful for preventing cognitive decline and apathy.
Cite this paper
Miura, K. , Takashima, S. , Matsui, M. and Tanaka, K. (2014) Low Frequency of Leisure-Time Activities Correlates with Cognitive Decline and Apathy in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Advances in Parkinson's Disease
, 15-21. doi: 10.4236/apd.2014.33004
 Speelman, A.D., van de Warrenburg, B.P., van Nimwegen, M., Petzinger, G.M., Munneke, M. and Bloem, B.R. (2011) How Might Physical Activity Benefit Patients with Parkinson Disease? Nature Reviews Neurology, 7, 528-534.
 Wang, H.X., Karp, A., Winblad, B. and Fratiglioni, L. (2002) Late-Life Engagement in Social and Leisure Activities Is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Dementia: A Longitudinal Study from the Kungsholmen Project. American Jour- nal of Epidemiology, 155, 1081-1087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/155.12.1081
 Barnett, I., van Sluijs, E.M. and Ogilvie, D. (2012) Physical Activity and Transitioning to Retirement: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43, 329-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.026
 Iwasa, H., Yoshida, Y., Kai, I., Suzuki, T., Kim, H. and Yoshida, H. (2012) Leisure Activities and Cognitive Function in Elderly Community-Dwelling Individuals in Japan: A 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 72, 159-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.10.002
 Dontje, M.L., de Greef, M.H., Speelman, A.D., et al. (2013) Quantifying Daily Physical Activity and Determinants in Sedentary Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 19, 878-882.
 van Nimwegen, M., Speelman, A.D., Hofman-Van Rossum, E.J., et al. (2011) Physical Inactivity in Parkinson’s Dis- ease. Journal of Neurology, 258, 2214-2221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-011-6097-7
 Mirelman, A., Herman, T., Brozgol, M., et al. (2012) Executive Function and Falls in Older Adults: New Findings from a Five-Year Prospective Study Link Fall Risk to Cognition. PLoS One, 7, Article ID: e40297.
 Hirota, C., Watanabe, M., Sun, W., et al. (2010) Association between the Trail Making Test and Physical Performance in Elderly Japanese. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 10, 40-47.
 Vazzana, R., Bandinelli, S., Lauretani, F., et al. (2010) Trail Making Test Predicts Physical Impairment and Mortality in Older Persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58, 719-723.
 Yogev, G., Giladi, N., Peretz, C., Springer, S., Simon, E.S. and Hausdorff, J.M. (2005) Dual Tasking, Gait Rhythmicity, and Parkinson’s Disease: Which Aspects of Gait Are Attention Demanding? European Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 1248-1256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04298.x
 Starkstein, S.E., Mayberg, H.S., Preziosi, T., Andrezejewski, P., Leiguarda, R. and Robinson, R.G. (1992) Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Correlates of Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neu- rosciences, 4, 134-139.
 Starkstein, S.E., Merello, M., Jorge, R., Brockman, S., Bruce, D. and Power, B. (2009) The Syndromal Validity and Nosological Position of Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease. Movement Disorders, 24, 1211-1216.