Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA) and aystole are the most common initial rhythms in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Respiratory failure is the most common cause for Rapid Response Team alert, and may be the initial cause for in-hospital cardiac arrests. Although cardiac monitoring is shown to be ineffective in identifying patients at risk for cardiac arrest, it is the most common monitoring used on the wards. As many of the cardiac arrests may have a respiratory origin, respiratory monitoring could identify patients at risk to develop cardiac arrest. Reclassifying cardiac arrests as primary cardiac and secondary would help in identifying secondary causes, and monitoring that could help in early identification of deterioration.
 Girota, S., Nalamothu, B.K., Spertus, J.A., Li, Y., Krumholz, H.M. and Chan, P.S. (2012) Trends in Survival after In- Hospital Cardiac Arrest. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367, 1912-1920. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1109148
 Chen, L.M., Nallamothu, B.K., Spertus, J.A., Li, Y. and Chan, P.S. (2013) Association between a Hospital’s Rate of Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Cardiac Arrest Survival. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173, 1186-1194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.1026
 Henriques-Forsythe, M.N., Ivonye, C.C., Jamched, U., Kamuguisha, L.S.K., Olejme, K.A. and Onwuanyi, A.E. (2009) Is Telemetry Overused? Is It as Helpful as Thought? Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 76, 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.76a.07260
 Schull, M.J. and Redelmeier, D.A. (2000) Continuous Electrocardiographic Monitoring and Cardiac Arrest Outcomes in 8,932 Telemetry Ward Patients. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7, 647-652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2000.tb02038.x
 Delgado, M.K., Liu, V., Pines, J.M., Kipnis, P., Gardner, M.N. and Escobar, G.J. (2013) Risk Factors for Unplanned Transfer to Intensive Care within 24 Hours of Admission from the Emergency Department in an Integrated Healthcare System. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 8, 13-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhm.1979
 Semler, M.W., Stover, D.G., Copland, A.P., Hong, G., Johnson, M.J., Kriss, M.S., Otepka, H., Wang, L., Christman, B.W. and Rice, T.W. (2013) Flash Mob Research: A Single Day, Multicenter, Resident-Directed Study of Respiratory Rate. Chest, 143, 1740-1744.
 Fu, E.S., Downs, J.B., Schweiger, J.W., Miguel, R.V. and Smith, R.A. (2004) Supplemental Oxygen Impairs Detection of Hypoventilation by Pulse Oximetry. Chest, 126, 1552-1558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.126.5.1552
 Taenzer, A.H., Pyke, J.B., McGrath, S.P. and Blike, G.T. (2010) Impact of Pulse Oximetry Surveillance on Rescue Events and Intensive Care Unit Transfers. A Before-and-After Concurrence Study. Anesthesiology, 112, 282-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181ca7a9b