OJMetal  Vol.4 No.3 , September 2014
Investigation on Microstructure and Grain Refining Performance of a New Type of Al-3Ti-1C Master Alloy
ABSTRACT
Grain refining process plays a significant role in preventing columnar and coarse grains and it encourages fine grain formation. Although Al-Ti-B master alloys use widely as aluminium grain refiners, there are several problems in their applications. So, this kind of master alloys use less than last. Because of great properties of Al-Ti-C refiners, they can be considered as suitable candidates for use instead of Al-Ti-B master alloys. In recent years, Al-Ti-C refiners have attracted huge attention among researchers. In this paper, Al-3Ti-1C master alloy is prepared with a melting reaction method. This method involves adding graphite powder and fine titanium particles into superheated pure aluminium. Then microstructure of this master alloy is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and its phases are distinguished by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In the next part, 200 ppm of Al-3Ti-1C master alloy is added to pure aluminium and its refining efficiency is compared with the condition in which TiC powders are added to aluminium melt directly. It is found that the fading time for both Al-3Ti-1C and TiC powder is about 15 minutes and in overall, grain refining efficiency of Al-3Ti-1C is more than TiC powders in 60 minutes.

Cite this paper
Hassanbeygi, V. and Shafyei, A. (2014) Investigation on Microstructure and Grain Refining Performance of a New Type of Al-3Ti-1C Master Alloy. Open Journal of Metal, 4, 49-55. doi: 10.4236/ojmetal.2014.43006.
References
[1]   Sato, K. and Flemings, M.C. (1998) Grain Refining of Al-4.5Cu Alloy by Adding an Al-30TiC Master Alloy. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 29, 1707-1710.

[2]   Kashyap, K.T. and Chandrashekar, T. (2001) Effects and Mechanisms of Grain Refinement in Aluminium Alloys. Bulletin of Materials Science, 24, 345-353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02708630

[3]   Birol, Y. (2006) Effect of the Salt Addition Practice on the Grain Refining Efficiency of Al-Ti-B Master Alloys. Alloys and Compounds, 420, 207-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.11.010

[4]   Birol, Y. (2007) Production of Al-Ti-B Grain Refining Master Alloys from B2O3 and K2TiF6. Alloys and Compounds, 443, 94-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.10.009

[5]   Quested, T.E. and Greer, A.L. (2004) The Effect of the Size Distribution of Inoculant Particles on As-Cast Grain Size in Aluminium Alloys. Acta Materialia, 52, 3859-3868.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2004.04.035

[6]   Murty, B.S., Kori, S.A. and Chakraborty, M. (2002) Grain Refinement of Aluminium and Its Alloys by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Alloying. International Materials Reviews, 47, 1-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/095066001225001049

[7]   Quested, T.E. and Greer, A.L. (2005) Grain Refinement of Al Alloys: Mechanisms Determining As-Cast Grain Size in Directional Solidification. Acta Materialia, 53, 4643-4653.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2005.06.018

[8]   Ding, H., Li, H. and Liu, X. (2009) Different Elements-Induced Destabilisation of TiC and Its Application on the Grain Refinement of Mg-Al Alloys. Alloys and Compounds, 485, 285-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.06.091

[9]   Nikitin, V.I., Wanqi, J.I.E., Kandalova, E.G., Makarenko, A.G. and Yong, L. (2000) Preparation of Al-Ti-B Grain Refiner by Shs Technology. Scripta Materialia, 42, 561-566.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6462(99)00390-5

[10]   Kunnam, P. and Limmaneevichitr, C. (2008) Effect of Process Parameters on Morphology and Grain Refinement Efficiency of TiAl3 and TiB2 in Aluminium Casting. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 24, 54-56.

[11]   Sigworth, G.K. (1984) Method for Grain Refinement of High Strength Aluminum Casting Alloys. Metallurgical Transactions A, 15, 195-204.

[12]   Banerji, A. and Reif, W. (1985) Al-6% Ti-1.2% C Master Alloy. Metallurgical Transactions A, 16, 2065-2068.

[13]   Prasad, K.V.S. (1997) Development of Fast Acting and Long Lasting Grain Refiner (Al-5Ti-1B) for Aluminium and Its Alloys. Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, India.

[14]   Peijie, L., Kandalova, E.G., Makarenko, A.G., Nikitin, V.I., Zhanga, Y. and Luts, A.R. (2004) SHS Process and Structure Formation of Al-Ti-B Grain Refiner Made with the Use of Fluxes. Materials Letters, 58, 1861-1864.

[15]   Maxwell, I. and Hellawell, A. (1975) A Simple Model for Grain Refinement during Solidification. Actametallurgica, 23, 229-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-6160(75)90188-1

[16]   Liu, X.F., Wang, Z.Q., Zhang, Z.G. and Bian, X.F. (2002) The Relationship between Microstructures and Refining Performances of Al-Ti-C Master Alloys. Materials Science and Engineering A, 332, 70-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01751-8

[17]   Nie, J., Ma, X., Ding, H. and Liu, X. (2009) Microstructure and Grain Refining Performance of a New Al-Ti-C-B Master Alloy. Alloys and Compounds, 486, 185-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.06.190

[18]   Kori, S.A., Murty, B.S. and Chakraborty, M. (2000) Development of an Efficient Grain Refiner for Al-7Si Alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A, 280, 58-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00656-5

[19]   Zhang, Z., Watanabe, Y., Kim, I., Liu, X. and Bian, X. (2005) Microstructure and Refining Performance of an Al-5Ti- 0.25C Refiner before and after Equal-Channel Angular Pressing. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 36, 837-844.

[20]   Banerji, A. and Reif, W. (1986) Development of Al-Ti-C Grain Refiners Containing TiC. Metallurgical Transactions A, 17, 2127-2137.

 
 
Top