Back
 CM  Vol.5 No.3 , September 2014
Acute and Long-Term Treatments with an Herbal Formula V-Vital Capsule Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Weight-Loaded Swimming Mice
Abstract: Fatigue is a self-limiting response arising from physical and/or mental weariness, with a consequent personal and economic morbidity on work performance and social relationships. Anti-fatigue intervention is therefore urgently sought. “Qi-invigorating” Chinese tonic herbs, which can improve the energy status in the body according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, may produce beneficial effects in fatigue individuals. The herbal formula V-Vital capsule (VVC), which comprises 3 “Qi-invigorating” herbs, namely the root of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax quinquefolium, may produce anti-fatigue effect. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acute/long-term VVC treatment (acute: 0.75, 0.2 and 3.75 kg/day × 1 dose; long-term: 0.075 and 0.25 g/kg/day × 14 doses) on weight-loaded swimming female ICR mice. The weight-loaded swimming time until exhaustion, indicative of exercise endurance capacity, was recorded. Plasma levels of glucose, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), lactate and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured in the exhausted mice. Glycogen levels in skeletal muscle and liver tissues were also measured. Mitochondrial function status [such as adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) activity and coupling efficiency] was assayed. Results showed that acute VVC treatment increased the exercise endurance capacity in weight-loaded swimming mice. The ability of acute VVC treatment to enhance the exercise endurance was associated with increases in plasma glucose levels as well as glycogen levels in skeletal muscles and liver tissues, presumably due to the utilization of plasma lactate for gluconeogenesis and/or glycogen synthesis in the liver. While acute VVC treatment reduced the plasma ROM level in weight-loaded swimming mice, it increased the ANT activity. In this regard, the enhancement in exercise endurance afforded by acute VVC treatment might be due to an increase in the glucose supply to the skeletal muscle, the amelioration of systemic oxidative stress and the improvement in mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle. Consistent with the results obtained in acute VVC treatment experiment, the long-term VVC treatment enhances the exercise endurance in weight-loaded swimming mice. The ensemble of results suggests that VVC may offer a promising prospect for enhancing the exercise endurance and alleviating fatigue in humans.
Cite this paper: Leong, P. , Leung, H. , Chan, W. , Chen, J. , Wong, H. , Ma, C. , Zou, S. and Ko, K. (2014) Acute and Long-Term Treatments with an Herbal Formula V-Vital Capsule Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Weight-Loaded Swimming Mice. Chinese Medicine, 5, 153-164. doi: 10.4236/cm.2014.53019.
References

[1]   Rosenthal, T.C., Majeroni, B.A., Pretorius, R. and Malik, K. (2008) Fatigue: An Overview. American Family Physician, 78, 1173-1179.

[2]   Afari, N. and Buchwald, D. (2003) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Review. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 221-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.2.221

[3]   Plioplys, A.V. and Plioplys, S. (1995) Electron-Microscopic Investigation of Muscle Mitochondria in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Neuropsychobiology, 32, 175-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000119233

[4]   Myhill, S., Booth, N.E. and McLaren-Howard, J. (2009) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Mitochondrial Dysfunction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2, 1-6.

[5]   Vander Heiden, M.G., Chandel, N.S., Schumacker, P.T. and Thompson, C.B. (1999) Bcl-xL Prevents Cell Death Following Growth Factor Withdrawal by Facilitating Mitochondrial ATP/ADP Exchange. Molecular Cell, 3, 159-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80307-X

[6]   Zhang, D. and Wu, X. (1991) Chapter 5 Qi, Blood, Body Fluid, Essence of Life and Spirit. In: Liu, Y., Ed., The Basic Knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hai Feng Publishing Co., Hong Kong, 49-53.

[7]   Wong, H.S., Chen, N., Leong, P.K. and Ko, K.M. (2013) β-Sitosterol Enhances Cellular Glutathione Redox Cycling by Reactive Oxygen Species Generated From Mitochondrial Respiration: Protection Against Oxidant Injury in H9c2 Cells and Rat Hearts. Phytotherapy Research, 28, 999-1006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5087

[8]   Chiu, P.Y. and Ko, K.M. (2003) Time-Dependent Enhancement in Mitochondrial Glutathione Status and ATP Generation Capacity by Schisandrin B Treatment Decreases the Susceptibility of Rat Hearts to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Biofactors, 19, 43-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520190106

[9]   Su, K.Y., Yu, C.Y., Chen, Y.W., Huang, Y.T., Chen, C.T., Wu, H.F. and Chen, Y.L. (2014) Rutin, a Flavonoid and Principal Component of Saussurea Involucrata, Attenuates Physical Fatigue in a Forced Swimming Mouse Model. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 11, 528-537.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.8220

[10]   Chen, J.C., Hsiang, C.Y., Lin, Y.C. and Ho, T.Y. (2014) Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014, Article ID: 540580.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/540580

[11]   Holloszy, J.O. and Kohrt, W.M. (1996) Regulation of Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism during and after Exercise. Annual Review of Nutrition, 16, 121-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.16.070196.001005

[12]   Conley, K.E., Jubrias, S.A., Cress, M.E. and Esselman, P.C. (2013) Elevated Energy Coupling and Aerobic Capacity Improves Exercise Performance in Endurance-Trained Elderly Subjects. Experimental Physiology, 98, 899-907.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2012.069633

[13]   Leong, P.K., Leung, H.Y., Wong, H.S., Chen, J.H., Chan, W.M., Ma, C.W., Yang, Y.T. and Ko, K.M. (2014) LongTerm Treatment with an Herbal Formula MCC Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Metabolic Dysfunction in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice: A Comparative Study among MCC and Various Combinations of Its Constituents. Chinese Medicine, 5, 34-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cm.2014.51005

[14]   Leong, P.K., Chen, N., Chiu, P.Y., Leung, H.Y., Ma, C.W., Tang, Q.T. and Ko, K.M. (2010) Long-Term Treatment with Shengmai San-Derived Herbal Supplement (Wei Kang Su) Enhances Antioxidant Response in Various Tissues of Rats with Protection against Carbon Tetrachloride Hepatotoxicity. Journal of Medicinal Food, 13, 427-438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2009.1296

[15]   Huang, S.C., Lee, F.T., Kuo, T.Y., Yang, J.H. and Chien, C.T. (2009) Attenuation of Long-Term Rhodiola rosea Supplementation on Exhaustive Swimming-Evoked Oxidative Stress in the Rat. Chinese Journal of Physiology, 52, 316324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4077/CJP.2009.AMH029

[16]   Lee, F.T., Kuo, T.Y., Liou, S.Y. and Chien, C.T. (2009) Chronic Rhodiola rosea Extract Supplementation Enforces Exhaustive Swimming Tolerance. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 37, 557-572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X09007053

[17]   Kimura, Y. and Sumiyoshi, M. (2004) Effects of Various Eleutherococcus senticosus Cortex on Swimming Time, Natural Killer Activity and Corticosterone Level in Forced Swimming Stressed Mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 95, 447-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.027

[18]   Qi, B., Liu, L., Zhang, H., Zhou, G.X., Wang, S., Duan, X.Z., Bai, X.Y., Wang, S.M. and Zhao, D.Q. (2014) Anti-Fatigue Effects of Proteins Isolated from Panax quinquefolium. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 153, 430-434.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.045

[19]   Frayn, K.N. (2010) Fat as a Fuel: Emerging Understanding of the Adipose Tissue-Skeletal Muscle Axis. Acta Physiologica, 199, 509-518.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02128.x

[20]   Jeppesen, J. and Kiens, B. (2012) Regulation and Limitations to Fatty Acid Oxidation during Exercise. Journal of Physiology, 590, 1059-1068.

[21]   Kato, M., Kurakane, S., Nishina, A., Park, J. and Chang H. (2013) The Blood Lactate Increase in High Intensity Exercise Is Depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus. Nutrients, 5, 4134-4144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5104134

[22]   Green, H.J. (1997) Mechanisms of Muscle Fatigue in Intense Exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 247-256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404197367254

[23]   Fitts, R.H. (1994) Cellular Mechanisms of Muscle Fatigue. Physiological Reviews, 74, 49-94.

[24]   Cady, E.B., Jones, D.A., Lynn, J. and Newham, D.J. (1989) Changes in Force and Intracellular Metabolites during Fatigue of Human Skeletal Muscle. Journal of Physiology, 418, 311-325.

[25]   Stary, C.M. and Hogan, M.C. (2005) Intracellular pH during Sequential, Fatiguing Contractile Periods in Isolated Single Xenopus Skeletal Muscle Fibers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99, 308-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01361.2004

[26]   Karlsson, J., Funderburk, C.F., Essen, B. and Lind, A.R. (1975) Constituents of Human Muscle in Isometric Fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 38, 208-211.

[27]   Van Beekvelt, M.C., Drost, G., Rongen, G., Stegeman, D.F., Van Engelen, B.G. and Zwarts, M.J. (2006) Na+-K+ ATPase Is Not Involved in the Warming-Up Phenomenon in Generalized Myotonia. Muscle & Nerve, 33, 514-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.20483

[28]   Allen, D.G., Lamb, G.D. and Westerblad, H. (2008) Skeletal Muscle Fatigue: Cellular Mechanisms. Physiological Reviews, 88, 287-332.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00015.2007

[29]   Jacobs, R.A., Flück, D., Bonne, T.C., Bürgi, S., Christensen, P.M., Toigo, M. and Lundby C. (1985) Improvements in Exercise Performance with High-Intensity Interval Training Coincide with an Increase in Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Content and Function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 115, 785-793.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00445.2013

[30]   Won, J.C., Park, J.Y., Kim, Y.M., Koh, E.H., Seol, S., Jeon, B.H., Han, J., Kim, J.R., Park, T.S., Choi, C.S., Lee, W.J., Kim, M.S., Lee, I.K., Youn, J.H. and Lee, K.U. (2010) Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Coactivator 1-α Overexpression Prevents Endothelial Apoptosis by Increasing ATP/ADP Translocase Activity. Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 30, 290-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.198721

 
 
Top