Health  Vol.6 No.15 , August 2014
Profiles of HIV-Affected Households in Ghana
Abstract: Background: To contribute to a fuller appreciation of Ghana’s HIV epidemic, this paper presents various profiles of the Ghanaian HIV-affected household. To comprehensively tackle the HIV epidemic in Ghana, the profiles would provide stakeholders with ready information for policy formulation. Methods: We used data from a nationally representative survey that measured livelihood activities, household asset wealth, household composition, health, and nutrition variables of 1745 HIV-affected households. From these emerged various profiles. Results: About 50% of the households are headed by females. Households headed by men have an average size of three members, compared to two for female-headed households. There are far more AIDS widows than widowers. The annual death rate among the surveyed households was about 1000 per 100,000-households. Relatively more deaths occurred in male-headed households. Two-thirds of the households were asset poor. Various coping strategies were instituted by the households in reaction to threat of food insecurity. The national prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is 16%. Conclusions: Our data show that age of household head, hosting of a chronically ill member, and average size of household differed by sex of household head. The annual death rate of 1000 per 100,000 households is very high.
Cite this paper: Laar, A. , Fiaveh, D. , Laar, M. , Boatemaa, S. , Abugri, J. , El-Adas, A. , Amenyah, R. , Atuahene, K. , Adjei, A. and Quakyi, I. (2014) Profiles of HIV-Affected Households in Ghana. Health, 6, 2004-2013. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.615235.

[1]   Library of Congress, CIA: Ghana Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (1994) The Library of Congress Country Studies, and the CIA World Factbook. Federal Research Division Library of Congress, Washington DC.

[2]   Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC) (2012) Ghana Country Aids Progress Report Reporting Period January 2010-December 2011. The Ghana AIDS Commission, Accra.

[3]   NACP (2013) The 2012 HIV Sentinel Survey Report. Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, Accra.

[4]   Agboh-Noameshie, R., Coulibaly, O., Gbaguidi, B., Allomasso, R., Kormawa, A., Adeoti, R., Kormawa, P. and Adetonah, S. (2007) Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihood in West Africa: An Explorative Study in Benin and Ghana. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Cotonou.

[5]   Parker, D.C., Jacobsen, K.H. and Komwa, M.K. (2009) A Qualitative Study of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural Households in Southeastern Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6, 2113-2138.

[6]   Hosegood, V. (2009) The Demographic Impact of HIV and AIDS across the Family and Household Life-Cycle: Implications for Efforts to Strengthen Families in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Care, 21, 13-21.

[7]   Thurlow, J., Gow, J. and George, G. (2009) HIV/AIDS, Growth and Poverty in KwaZulu-Natal and South Africa: An Integrated Survey, Demographic and Economy-Wide Analysis. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 12, 18.

[8]   Reeves, P.M., Merriam, S.B. and Courtenay, B.C. (1999) Adaptation to HIV Infection: The Development of Coping Strategies over Time. Qualitative Health Research, 9, 344-361.

[9]   Piot, P., Greener, R. and Russell, S. (2007) Squaring the Circle: AIDS, Poverty, and Human Development. PLoS Medicine, 4, 1571-1575.

[10]   Tsai, A.C., Hung, K.J. and Weiser, S.D. (2012) Is Food Insecurity Associated with HIV Risk? Cross-Sectional Evidence from Sexually Active Women in Brazil. PLoS Medicine, 9, Article ID: e1001203.

[11]   Garcia, J., Hromi-Fiedler, A., Mazur, R.E., Marquis, G., Sellen, D., Lartey, A. and Pérez-Escamilla, R. (2013) Persistent Household Food Insecurity, HIV, and Maternal Stress in Peri-Urban Ghana. BMC Public Health, 13, 215.

[12]   Gillespie, S. and Kadiyala, S. (2005) HIV/AIDS and Food and Nutrition Security: From Evidence to Action. International Food Policy Institute, Washington DC.

[13]   WFP (2009) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA). WFP, Accra.

[14]   Laar, A.K., Manu, A., Fiaveh, D. and Laar, M.E. (2012) Vulnerability to Food Insecurity and Negative Coping Strategies of HIV-Affected Households in Ghana. The 24th congress of the Nutrition Society of South Africa and the 5th African Nutrition Epidemiology Conference University of Free State, Bloemfontein, 30 September-4 October 2012, Book of Abstract, 53.

[15]   GSS (2009) GHS, Macro-International: Ghana Health Service (GHS), & ICF Macro. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2008. GSS, Accra.

[16]   Reniers, G. and Armbruster, B. (2012) HIV Status Awareness, Partnership Dissolution and HIV Transmission in Generalized Epidemics. PLoS One, 7, Article ID: e50669.

[17]   Kaiser, R., Bunnell, R., Hightower, A., Kim, A.A., Cherutich, P., Mwangi, M., Oluoch, T., Dadabhai, S., Mureithi, P., Mugo, N. and Mermin, J. (2011) Factors Associated with HIV Infection in Married or Cohabitating Couples in Kenya: Results from a Nationally Representative Study. PLoS One, 6, Article ID: e17842.

[18]   Porter, L., Hao, L., Bishai, D., Serwadda, D., Wawer, M.J., Lutalo, T. and Gray, R. (2004) HIV Status and Union Dissolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Rakai, Uganda. Demography, 41, 465-482.

[19]   Madhavan, S., Schatz, E. and Clark, B. (2009) Effect of HIV/AIDS-Related Mortality on Household Dependency Ratios in Rural South Africa, 2000-2005. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography, 63, 37-51.

[20]   Mishra, V., Assche, S.B.-V., Greener, R., Vaessen, M., Hong, R., Ghys, P.D., Boerma, J.T., Van Assche, A., Khan, S. and Rutstein, S. (2007) HIV Infection Does Not Disproportionately Affect the Poorer in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS, 21, S17-S28.

[21]   Fox, A.M. (2010) The Social Determinants of HIV Serostatus in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Inverse Relationship between Poverty and HIV? Public Health Reports, 125, 16-24.

[22]   Kadiyala, S. and Rawat, R. (2013) Food Access and Diet Quality Independently Predict Nutritional Status among People Living with HIV in Uganda. Public Health Nutrition, 16, 164-170.

[23]   Samuels, F.A. and Rutenberg, N. (2011) Health Regains but Livelihoods Lag: Findings from a Study with People on ART in Zambia and Kenya. AIDS Care, 23, 748-754.

[24]   Sikkema, K.J., Kalichman, S.C., Hoffmann, R., Koob, J.J., Kelly, J.A. and Heckman, T.G. (2000) Coping Strategies and Emotional Wellbeing among HIV-Infected Men and Women Experiencing AIDS-Related Bereavement. AIDS Care, 12, 613-624.

[25]   Lesar, S. and Maldonado, Y.A. (1996) Parental Coping Strategies in Families of HIV-Infected Children. Journal of Child Health Care, 25, 19-35.