Can a Massive Graviton be a Stable Particle

Author(s)
Andrew Beckwith

ABSTRACT

This document is based on a question asked in the Dark Side of the Universe 2010 conference in Leon, Mexico, when a researcher from India asked the author about how to obtain a stability analysis of massive gravitons. The answer to this question involves an extension of the usual Pauli_Fiertz Langrangian as written by Ortin, with non- zero graviton mass contributing to a relationship between the trace of a revised GR stress-energy tensor (assuming non- zero graviton mass), and the trace of a revised symmetric tensor times a tiny mass for a 4 dimensional graviton. The resulting analysis makes use of Visser’s treatment of a stress en-ergy tensor, with experimental applications discussed in the resulting analysis. If the square of frequency of a massive graviton is real valued and greater than zero, stability can be possibly confirmed experimentally.

This document is based on a question asked in the Dark Side of the Universe 2010 conference in Leon, Mexico, when a researcher from India asked the author about how to obtain a stability analysis of massive gravitons. The answer to this question involves an extension of the usual Pauli_Fiertz Langrangian as written by Ortin, with non- zero graviton mass contributing to a relationship between the trace of a revised GR stress-energy tensor (assuming non- zero graviton mass), and the trace of a revised symmetric tensor times a tiny mass for a 4 dimensional graviton. The resulting analysis makes use of Visser’s treatment of a stress en-ergy tensor, with experimental applications discussed in the resulting analysis. If the square of frequency of a massive graviton is real valued and greater than zero, stability can be possibly confirmed experimentally.

Cite this paper

nullA. Beckwith, "Can a Massive Graviton be a Stable Particle,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 350-353. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.25043.

nullA. Beckwith, "Can a Massive Graviton be a Stable Particle,"

References

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[2] A. Beckwith, “Energy Content of Gravitation as a Way to Quantify Both Entropy and Information Generation in the Early Universe,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 58-61. doi:10.4236/jmp.2011.22010

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[4] M. Maggiore, “Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiment,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

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[6] R. Durrer and M. Rinaldi, “Graviton Production in Noninflationary Cosmology,” Physical Review D, Vol. 79, No. 6, 2009, p. 063507. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.79.063507

[7] M. Alcubierre, “Introduction to Numerical Relativity,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

[8] Y. Ng, “Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality,” Entropy 2008, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2008, pp. 441-461. doi:10.3390/e10040441

[9] G. ‘t Hooft, “The Mathematical Basis for Deterministic Quantum Mechanics,” In: Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, et al., Eds., Beyond the Quantum, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2006.

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[12] U. Sarkar, “Particle and Astroparticle Physics in ‘Series of High Energy Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation’,” Taylor & Francis, New York, 2008.

[13] T. Ortin, “Gravity and Strings,” Cambridge University Press, Oxford, 2007.

[14] J. Y. Kim, “Stability and Fluctuation Modes of Giant Gravitons with NSNS B Field,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 529, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 150-162. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(02)01233-9

[15] Lloyd, S., “Computational Capacity of the Universe,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 88, No. 23, 2002, p. 237901. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.237901

[1] A. W. Beckwith, “Applications of Euclidian Snyder Geo- metry to the Foundations of Space-Time Physics,” Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 7, No. 24, 2010, pp. 241-266.

[2] A. Beckwith, “Energy Content of Gravitation as a Way to Quantify Both Entropy and Information Generation in the Early Universe,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 58-61. doi:10.4236/jmp.2011.22010

[3] G. Smoot, “CMB Observations and the Standard Model of the Universe,” International Programme of Cosmology Daniel Chalonge “Third Millennium,” Paris, 2007.

[4] M. Maggiore, “Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiment,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

[5] M. Visser, “Mass for the Graviton,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 30, No. 12, 1998, pp. 1717-1728. doi:10.1023/A:1026611026766

[6] R. Durrer and M. Rinaldi, “Graviton Production in Noninflationary Cosmology,” Physical Review D, Vol. 79, No. 6, 2009, p. 063507. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.79.063507

[7] M. Alcubierre, “Introduction to Numerical Relativity,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

[8] Y. Ng, “Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality,” Entropy 2008, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2008, pp. 441-461. doi:10.3390/e10040441

[9] G. ‘t Hooft, “The Mathematical Basis for Deterministic Quantum Mechanics,” In: Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, et al., Eds., Beyond the Quantum, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2006.

[10] G. ‘t Hooft, “Determinism beneath Quantum Mechanics,” Report Number: ITP-02/69; SPIN-2002/45. http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0212095

[11] R. Maartens, “Braneworld Cosmology, Chapter 7 - The Physics of the Early Universe,” Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 653, 2005, pp. 213-252.

[12] U. Sarkar, “Particle and Astroparticle Physics in ‘Series of High Energy Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation’,” Taylor & Francis, New York, 2008.

[13] T. Ortin, “Gravity and Strings,” Cambridge University Press, Oxford, 2007.

[14] J. Y. Kim, “Stability and Fluctuation Modes of Giant Gravitons with NSNS B Field,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 529, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 150-162. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(02)01233-9

[15] Lloyd, S., “Computational Capacity of the Universe,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 88, No. 23, 2002, p. 237901. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.237901