Back
 JPEE  Vol.2 No.8 , August 2014
Performance of a Direct Injection of IC Engine on SVO and Biodiesel from Multiple Feedstocks
Abstract: Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a promising biofuel with a low energy input to energy output ratio. Successful use of SVO in engines depends on engine performance, wear and emissions. This study focuses on short term engine emissions and performance. This research uses oils produced in Colorado as a full diesel fuel substitute in a modified single cylinder engine. This engine testing was conducted in the laboratory. The test engine was a Yanmar TF140E, which is naturally aspirated and uses low pressure (~140 bar) mechanical direct injection. The engine fuel system was modified to accommodate a 2-tank custom SVO kit. The SVO was heated to 75 °C. Fuel economy and emissions measurements were performed for petroleum diesel, four different vegetable oils (sunflower, canola, camelina, and soybean) and their biodiesel derivatives. Fuel mass flow, oxides of nitrogen (NOX), total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter were measured. No engine degradation was experienced through approximately 50 hrs of testing on SVO and 50 hrs of testing on biodiesel. Overall engine emissions for SVO and biodiesel, with the exception of THC for biodiesel, were higher than petroleum diesel. More favorable biofuel emissions comparisons to diesel are expected with other engine designs based on data from various literature sources. Data comparing raw and refined SVO indicate that refined vegetable oil produces lower particulate matter (PM) emissions. General trends were observed showing that oils with higher levels of polyunsaturated fats (e.g. C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3) produce higher levels of NOX and THC’s.
Cite this paper: Nettles-Anderson, S. , Olsen, D. , Johnson, J. and Enjalbert, J. (2014) Performance of a Direct Injection of IC Engine on SVO and Biodiesel from Multiple Feedstocks. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 2, 1-13. doi: 10.4236/jpee.2014.28001.
References

[1]   Strayer, R.C., Blake, J.A. and Craig, W.K. (1983) Canola and High Erucic Rapeseed Oil as Substitutes for Diesel Fuel: Preliminary Tests. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 60, 1587-1592.

[2]   Gao, J., Hao, X., Thelen, K.D. and Robertson, G.P. (2009) Agronomic Management System and Precipitation Effect on Soybean Oil and Fatty Acid Profiles. Crop Science, 49, 1049-1057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.08.0497

[3]   Nettles-Anderson, S.L. and Olsen, D.B. (2009) Survey of Straight Vegetable Oil Composition Impact on Combustion Properties. SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0487.

[4]   Coleman, H.W. and Steele, G. (2009) Experimentation and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers. 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470485682

[5]   Nishi, K., Korematsu, K. and Tanaka, J. (2004) Potential of Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel. Society of Automotive Engineers 2004-01-1858.

[6]   Shaheed, A. and Swain, E. (1999) Combustion Analysis of Coconut Oil and Its Methyl Esters in a Diesel Engine. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 213, 417-425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/0957650991537798

[7]   Almeida, S.C.A., Belchior, C.R., Nascimento, M.V.G., Vieira, L.S.R. and Fleury, G. (2002) Performance of a Diesel Generator Fuelled with Palm Oil. Fuel, 81, 2097-2102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00155-2

[8]   Hemmerlein, N., Korte, V., Richter, H. and SchrÖder, G. (1991) Performance, Exhaust Emissions and Durability of Modern Diesel Engines Running on Rapeseed Oil. SAE Technical Paper 910848.

[9]   Bari, S., Lim, T.H. and Yu, C.W. (2002) Effects of Preheating of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) on Injection System, Performance and Emission of a Diesel Engine. Renewable Energy, 27, 339-351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(02)00010-1

[10]   Graboski, M.S. and McCormick, R.L. (1998) Combustion of Fat and Vegetable Oil Derived Fuels in Diesel Engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 24, 125-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1285(97)00034-8

[11]   McCormick, R.L., Graboski, M.S., Alleman, T.L. and Herring, A.M. (2001) Impact of Biodiesel Source Material and Chemical Structure on Emission of Criteria Pollutant from a Heavy-Duty Engine. Environmental Science Technology, 35, 1742-1747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es001636t

 
 
Top