The Liquid-Bridge with Large Gap in Micro Structural Systems

ABSTRACT

Based on the analysis of the total free energy of the liquid-bridge, several methods are presented to analyze the pull-off force of liquid-bridge. For the liquid bridge system with a large gap width, accurate solutions of a two-plates liquid bridge and a sphere-plane liquid bridge are given. In addition, the edge-effect resulting from the profile of the top solid in the liquid-bridge system is analyzed and calculated. It is proved by the subsequent tests.

Based on the analysis of the total free energy of the liquid-bridge, several methods are presented to analyze the pull-off force of liquid-bridge. For the liquid bridge system with a large gap width, accurate solutions of a two-plates liquid bridge and a sphere-plane liquid bridge are given. In addition, the edge-effect resulting from the profile of the top solid in the liquid-bridge system is analyzed and calculated. It is proved by the subsequent tests.

Cite this paper

nullS. Gao, L. Jin, J. Du and H. Liu, "The Liquid-Bridge with Large Gap in Micro Structural Systems,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 404-415. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.25050.

nullS. Gao, L. Jin, J. Du and H. Liu, "The Liquid-Bridge with Large Gap in Micro Structural Systems,"

References

[1] M. He, A. S. Blum, D. E. Aston, C. Buenviaje and R. M. Overney, “Critical Phenomena of Water Bridges in Nanoasperity Contacts,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 114, No. 3, 2001, pp. 1355-1360. doi:10.1063/1.1331298

[2] J. Jang, G. C. Schatz and M. A. Ratner, “Capillary Force in Atomic Force Microscopy,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1157-1160. doi:10.1063/1.1640332

[3] T. Stifter, O. Marti and B. Bhushan, “Theoretical Investigation of the Distance Dependence of Capillary and Van der Waals Forces in Scanning Force Microscopy,” Physical Review B, Vol. 62, No. 20, 2000, pp. 13667-13673. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.62.13667

[4] H. Fan and Y. X. Gao, “Elastic Solution for Liquid-bridging- induced Microscale Contact,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, No. 12, 2001, pp. 5904-5910. doi:10.1063/1.1415057

[5] A. Chau, S. Regnier, A. Delchambre and P. Lambert, “Influnce of Geometrical Parameters on Capillary Forces,” Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, Ann Arbor, 22-25 July 2007, pp. 215-220.

[6] D. Wu, N. Fang, C. Sun and X. Zhang, “Stiction Problems in Releasing of 3D Microstructures and Its Solution,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 128, No. 1, 2006, pp. 109-115. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2005.12.041

[7] P. Lambert, F. Seigneur, S. Koelemeijer and J. Jacot, “A Case Study of Surface Tension Gripping: The Watch Bearing,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 16, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1267-1276. doi:10.1088/0960-1317/16/7/021

[8] J. S. McFarlane and D. Tabor, “Adhesion of Solids and the Effect of Surface Films,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, London, July 1950, pp. 224-243. doi:10.1098/rspa.1950.0096

[9] F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, “Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part I,” Oxford University Press, London, 1954.

[10] F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, “Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part II,” Oxford University Press, London, 1964.

[11] B. Bhushan, “Principles and Applications of Tribology,” Wiley, New York, 1999.

[12] F. M. Orr, L. E. Scriven and A. P. Rivas, “Pendular Rings between Solids: Meniscus Properties and Capillary Force,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 67, No. 4, 1975, pp. 723-742. doi:10.1017/S0022112075000572

[13] B. Zhang and A. Nakajima, “Nanometer Deformation Caused by the Laplace Pressure and the Possibility of Its Effect on Surface Tension Measurements,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 211, No. 1, 1999, pp. 114-121. doi:10.1006/jcis.1998.5978

[14] O. H. Pakarinen, A. S. Foster, M. Paajanen, T. Kalinainen, J. Katainen, I. Makkonen, J. Lahtinen and R. M. Nieminen, “Towards an Accurate Description of the Capillary Force in Nanoparticle-surface Interactions,” Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1175-1186. doi:10.1088/0965-0393/13/7/012

[15] H. Shinto, K. Uranishi, M. Miyahara and K. Higashitani, “Wetting-induced Interaction between Rigid Nanoparticle and Plate: A Monte Carlo Study,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 116, No. 21, 2002, pp. 9500-9509. doi:10.1063/1.1473817

[16] C. Gao, “Theory of Menisci and Its Applications,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, No. 13, 1997, pp. 1801-1803. doi:10.1063/1.119403

[17] L. R. Fisher and J. N. Israelachvili, “Direct Measurement of the Effect of Meniscus Forces on Adhesion: A Study of the Applicability of Macroscopic Thermodynamics to Microscopic Liquid Interfaces,” Colloids and Surfaces, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1981, pp. 303-319. doi:10.1016/0166-6622(81)80058-3

[18] H. K. Christenson, “Adhesion between Surfaces in Unsaturated Vapors – A Reexamination of the Influence of Meniscus Curvature and Surface Forces,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 121, No. 1, 1988, pp. 170-178. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(88)90420-1

[19] H. K. Christenson and V. V. Yaminsky, “Adhesion and Salvation Forces between Surfaces in Liquids Studied by Vapor-Phase Experiments,” Langmuir, Vol. 9, No. 9, 1993, pp. 2448-2454. doi:10.1021/la00033a030

[20] J. P. Kirkness, H. K. Christenson, J. R. Wheatley and T. C. Amis, “Application of the ‘Pull-Off’ Force Method for Measurement of Surface Tension of Upper Airway Mucosal Lining Liquid,” Physiological Measurement, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2005, pp. 677-688. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/26/5/009

[21] J. Yuan, Z. Shao and C. Gao, “Alternative Method of Imaging Surface Topologies of Nonconducting Bulk Specimens by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 67, No. 7, 1991, pp. 863-866. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.67.863

[22] H. Fan and G. F. Wang, “Stability Analysis for Liquid- bridging Induced Contact,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, No. 5, 2003, pp. 2554-2558. doi:10.1063/1.1544652

[23] S. Gao and H. Liu, “Capillary Mechanics,” Science Press, Beijing, 2010.

[1] M. He, A. S. Blum, D. E. Aston, C. Buenviaje and R. M. Overney, “Critical Phenomena of Water Bridges in Nanoasperity Contacts,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 114, No. 3, 2001, pp. 1355-1360. doi:10.1063/1.1331298

[2] J. Jang, G. C. Schatz and M. A. Ratner, “Capillary Force in Atomic Force Microscopy,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1157-1160. doi:10.1063/1.1640332

[3] T. Stifter, O. Marti and B. Bhushan, “Theoretical Investigation of the Distance Dependence of Capillary and Van der Waals Forces in Scanning Force Microscopy,” Physical Review B, Vol. 62, No. 20, 2000, pp. 13667-13673. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.62.13667

[4] H. Fan and Y. X. Gao, “Elastic Solution for Liquid-bridging- induced Microscale Contact,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, No. 12, 2001, pp. 5904-5910. doi:10.1063/1.1415057

[5] A. Chau, S. Regnier, A. Delchambre and P. Lambert, “Influnce of Geometrical Parameters on Capillary Forces,” Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, Ann Arbor, 22-25 July 2007, pp. 215-220.

[6] D. Wu, N. Fang, C. Sun and X. Zhang, “Stiction Problems in Releasing of 3D Microstructures and Its Solution,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 128, No. 1, 2006, pp. 109-115. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2005.12.041

[7] P. Lambert, F. Seigneur, S. Koelemeijer and J. Jacot, “A Case Study of Surface Tension Gripping: The Watch Bearing,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 16, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1267-1276. doi:10.1088/0960-1317/16/7/021

[8] J. S. McFarlane and D. Tabor, “Adhesion of Solids and the Effect of Surface Films,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, London, July 1950, pp. 224-243. doi:10.1098/rspa.1950.0096

[9] F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, “Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part I,” Oxford University Press, London, 1954.

[10] F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, “Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part II,” Oxford University Press, London, 1964.

[11] B. Bhushan, “Principles and Applications of Tribology,” Wiley, New York, 1999.

[12] F. M. Orr, L. E. Scriven and A. P. Rivas, “Pendular Rings between Solids: Meniscus Properties and Capillary Force,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 67, No. 4, 1975, pp. 723-742. doi:10.1017/S0022112075000572

[13] B. Zhang and A. Nakajima, “Nanometer Deformation Caused by the Laplace Pressure and the Possibility of Its Effect on Surface Tension Measurements,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 211, No. 1, 1999, pp. 114-121. doi:10.1006/jcis.1998.5978

[14] O. H. Pakarinen, A. S. Foster, M. Paajanen, T. Kalinainen, J. Katainen, I. Makkonen, J. Lahtinen and R. M. Nieminen, “Towards an Accurate Description of the Capillary Force in Nanoparticle-surface Interactions,” Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1175-1186. doi:10.1088/0965-0393/13/7/012

[15] H. Shinto, K. Uranishi, M. Miyahara and K. Higashitani, “Wetting-induced Interaction between Rigid Nanoparticle and Plate: A Monte Carlo Study,” Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 116, No. 21, 2002, pp. 9500-9509. doi:10.1063/1.1473817

[16] C. Gao, “Theory of Menisci and Its Applications,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, No. 13, 1997, pp. 1801-1803. doi:10.1063/1.119403

[17] L. R. Fisher and J. N. Israelachvili, “Direct Measurement of the Effect of Meniscus Forces on Adhesion: A Study of the Applicability of Macroscopic Thermodynamics to Microscopic Liquid Interfaces,” Colloids and Surfaces, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1981, pp. 303-319. doi:10.1016/0166-6622(81)80058-3

[18] H. K. Christenson, “Adhesion between Surfaces in Unsaturated Vapors – A Reexamination of the Influence of Meniscus Curvature and Surface Forces,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 121, No. 1, 1988, pp. 170-178. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(88)90420-1

[19] H. K. Christenson and V. V. Yaminsky, “Adhesion and Salvation Forces between Surfaces in Liquids Studied by Vapor-Phase Experiments,” Langmuir, Vol. 9, No. 9, 1993, pp. 2448-2454. doi:10.1021/la00033a030

[20] J. P. Kirkness, H. K. Christenson, J. R. Wheatley and T. C. Amis, “Application of the ‘Pull-Off’ Force Method for Measurement of Surface Tension of Upper Airway Mucosal Lining Liquid,” Physiological Measurement, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2005, pp. 677-688. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/26/5/009

[21] J. Yuan, Z. Shao and C. Gao, “Alternative Method of Imaging Surface Topologies of Nonconducting Bulk Specimens by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 67, No. 7, 1991, pp. 863-866. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.67.863

[22] H. Fan and G. F. Wang, “Stability Analysis for Liquid- bridging Induced Contact,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, No. 5, 2003, pp. 2554-2558. doi:10.1063/1.1544652

[23] S. Gao and H. Liu, “Capillary Mechanics,” Science Press, Beijing, 2010.