The expediency of development of one of the newest highly effective radiation-protective materials—layered composites of “light metal/heavy metal” type is substantiated. The characteristics of the internal architecture of composites of Al/Pb type made by consecutive application of vacuum and normal atmospheric rolling are adduced. The differences between the radioisotope and accelerating techniques of experimental testing of radiation-protective properties of materials are described. The results of the testing of composites and the influence of their structure on radiation-protective properties of the investigated materials are characterized. It is shown that the radiation-protective efficiency of composites certain structures may be 30% - 40% higher than the aluminum. This gives the opportunity to reduce the weight of radiation-protective structure at preservation of effectiveness of protection at aluminum level, or to increase the effectiveness of protection at constant weight of this structure.