OJPP  Vol.4 No.3 , August 2014
Heretics, Democracy, the Beyond
Abstract: This short essay first describes (in Part One) what the heretics are, pesky yet needed provocation from outside our “right” orthodoxy, and then details (in Part Two) the heretics in sections from A through I, which joyously ties up the entire survey of the heretics invincible, soaring cosmically beyond. Protesting heretics take hold of their criticizing selves, to invite us all to self-criticize, and so they are resented by the orthodox already right. Heretics are idios, lone “idiotic” and independent, to resolve two paradoxes of democracy. Many factual examples are cited, recent and historical, USA and abroad, to show how essential the brave heretics are, risking their lives to jolt afresh the orthodox status quo, to go beyond it. Heretics have their sociality; self-critical, they never err. Thus, heretics provoke us to go beyond us, going-beyond is living, and so heretics provoke us alive homo-cosmic.
Cite this paper: Wu, K. (2014) Heretics, Democracy, the Beyond. Open Journal of Philosophy, 4, 360-371. doi: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43039.

[1]   Alexander, E. (2012). Proof of Heaven: A Neurosurgeon’s Journey into the Afterlife. New York: Simon & Schuste.

[2]   Arendt, H. (1951). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Schocken Books.

[3]   Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[4]   Aristotle. (1982). The Basic Works of Aristotle. New York: Modern Library.

[5]   Barker, E. (Ed.) (1958). The Politics of Aristotle. New York: Oxford University Press.

[6]   Baynes, K., Bohman, J., & McCarthy, T. (Eds.) (1987). After Philosophy: End or Transformation? Boston, MA: MIT Press.

[7]   Biko, S. (2002). I Write What I Like. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[8]   Blake, W. (1998). The Complete Poetry & Prose of William Blake. New York: Anchor Publishers.

[9]   Buber, M. (2000). I and Thou. New York: Scribner Classics.

[10]   Carson, C., Garrow, D. J., Kovach, B., & Polsgrove, C. (2003). Reporting Civil Rights. Two Volumes, New York: The Library of America.

[11]   Chen, L. F. (Ed.) (1976). Quick Index to the Four Books. Taipei: World Press.

[12]   Chidester, D. (2007). Studying Religion in South Africa. In M. E. Courville (Ed.), The Next Step in Studying Religion (pp. 129-46). London: Continuum.

[13]   Chu, Z. (1995). Chu’s Complete Works. Tainan: Da-Fu Publishers.

[14]   Columbia University Press (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press.

[15]   Croce, B. (1970). Aesthetic. New York: Noonday Press.

[16]   Dershowitz, A. M. (2005). America on Trial. New York: Grand Central Publishing.

[17]   Diamond, L. (2004). What Went Wrong in Iraq? Foreign Affairs, September/October, pp. 34-56.

[18]   Emerson, R. W. (2000). The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: The Modern Library.

[19]   Erasmus, D. (1979). The Praise of Folly, C. H. Miller, Tran., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

[20]   Fortas, A. (1968). Concerning Dissent and Civil Disobedience. New York: New American Library.

[21]   Freud, S. (1930). Civilization and Its Discontent. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

[22]   Frost, R. (1975). The Poetry of Robert Frost. New York: Holt Paperback.

[23]   Gragg, R. (1954). The Story of the Declaration of Independence. New York: Oxford University Press.

[24]   Herbert, B. (2004). Voting Without the Facts. New York Times, 11/8/2004.

[25]   Hsiang, D. (2007). Year Twenty-Five, in The Tso Chuan. Taipei: San-Ming Publishers.

[26]   Johnson, C., & Adelman, B. (2008). Remembering Martin Luther King, Jr.: 40 Years Later. Life Books, New York: Time, Inc.

[27]   Johnson, J. W. (1968). Utopian Literature: A Selection. New York: Random House.

[28]   Kittel, G., & Bromiley, G. W. (1964). Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapid, MI: Wm, B. Eerdmans.

[29]   Lief, R. A. (1969). Homage to Oceania: The Prophetic Vision of George Orwell, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.

[30]   Lippmann, W. (1929). A Preface to Morals. New York: Macmillan Company.

[31]   Locke, J., & Laslett, P. (2003). Locke: Two Treatises of Government. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[32]   Lowi, T. J. (1969). The End of Liberalism. New York: W. W. Norton.

[33]   Lü, S. (1963). Chi, Lien-k’ang compiled and translated Theories on Music in Confucius, Mencius, and Hsün Tzu, Musical Theories during the Two Han Periods, and Data on Music. Taipei: San-Ming Publishers.

[34]   Maharaj, M., Kathrada, A., Tutu, A. D., & Clinton, B. (2006). Mandela: The Authorized Portrait. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel.

[35]   Monk, L. R. (2005). The Words We Live By. New York: Hyperion.

[36]   Nuland, S. B. (2000). The Mysteries Within; A Surgeon Reflects on Medical Myths. New York: Simon & Schuster.

[37]   Nye Jr., N. S. (2005). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Boston, MA: Public Affairs.

[38]   O’Brien, G., & Bartlett, J. (2012). Bartlett's Famous Quotations. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

[39]   Orwell, G. (1956). The Orwell Reader. Harcourt, NY: Brace and Co.

[40]   Paine, T. (1995). Common Sense. New York: Barnes & Noble.

[41]   Plato. (1945). The Republic of Plato, tr. Francis Macdonald Cornford. New York: Oxford University Press.

[42]   Plato. (2012). Plato: The Complete Works. New York: Hackett Publishers.

[43]   Price, L. (2001). Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead. Boston, MA: David R. Godine.

[44]   Rossi, W. (1966). Walden and Resistance to Civil Government: Henry D. Thoreau (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton.

[45]   Schell, O. (2004). China’s Hidden Democratic Legacy. Foreign Affairs, July/August, pp. 116-124.

[46]   Schenker, D. (2014). Personal Conversation.

[47]   Starr, J. B. (2010). Understanding China. New York: Hill & Wang.

[48]   Taylor, J. B. (2009). My Stroke of Insight: A Brain Scientist’s Personal Journey. New York: Penguin.

[49]   Waley, A. (1982). Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China [1939]. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

[50]   Whitehead, A. N. (2001). Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead (edited by L. Price). Boston, MA: David R. Godine.

[51]   Woolf, S. J. (1968). The Nature of Fascism. New York: Random House.

[52]   Woolf, S. J. (1969). The Nature of Fascism. New York: Random House.