OJEpi  Vol.4 No.3 , August 2014
Residual Risk of Transmission of HIV and Hepatitis B and C by Blood Transfusion in Bukavu in the Democratic Republic of Congo
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of HIV1/2 antibodies, HBV and HCV antibodies among voluntary blood donors and to estimate the residual risk of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among blood donors in Bukavu. We conducted a follow-up cohort study of volunteer blood donors who have made at least two blood donations in Bukavu (DRC) between January 2010 and December 2012. We recorded 2986 volunteer blood donors during the study period. The residual risk of viral transmission associated with the serological window was considered as equals to the incidence rate multiplied by the duration of the serological window period divided by 365. Seroprevalence in volunteer blood donors in Bukavu was 1.1% for HIV 1/2 antibodies, 4.0% for HBs Ag and 2.1% for hepatitis C antibody. The number of conversion between two blood donations (incident cases) were observed is 8, 12 and 37 donors respectively for HIV 1/2, HCV and hepatitis B between 2010 and 2012. Incidence rates reported for 1000 person-years were 11.0 for HIV, 51.7 for HBV and 17.1 for HCV. The residual risk as estimated from the window was 0.6 per 1000 donations or 1/1.515 donations for HIV, 3.1 per 1000 donations or 1/329 for HCV and 7.9 per 1000 donations or 1/126 donations for hepatitis B. The residual risk is high. The screening tests are not enough to ensure safe blood. The reduction of residual risk would be achieved through the effectiveness of preventive measures taken for transfusion chain, before and after the biological qualification of blood donation.


Cite this paper
Kabinda, J. , Bulabula, A. , Donnen, P. , Fiasse, R. , Ende, J. , Sondag-Thull, D. and Michèle, D. (2014) Residual Risk of Transmission of HIV and Hepatitis B and C by Blood Transfusion in Bukavu in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 4, 157-163. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.43021.
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