AJAC  Vol.5 No.11 , August 2014
Methodology for the Determination of Trace and Minor Elements in Minerals and Fused Rock Glasses with Laser Ablation Associated with Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-Q-ICPMS)
Abstract: The laser ablation technique, coupled with the use of quadrupole ICPMS equipment, proved a powerful tool for determination of trace elements in minerals. At the University of S?o Paulo, the technique was implemented for the study of minerals such as olivines, pyroxenes and biotites. The main problem to be tackled is the availability of proper multi-element reference materials usually prepared synthetically as glasses with various compositions by NIST and fused rock glasses by the Max Planck Institute (MPI) and USGS (basalts, andesite, quartz diorite, komatiites). The best tested ones are the NIST glasses, with good homogeneity and reliable compositional data for over 40 elements. Results are here presented that test additional RM’s. NIST 612 and 610 were used for calibration purposes. The best results were obtained for rock glasses USGS basalts BHVO-2G, BIR- 1G and BCR-2G (better homogeneity and recommended values). Our contribution tests especially the MPI komatiites glasses GOR-128 and GOR-132G, basalts KL-2G and ML-3BG, andesite StHs-6/ 80G and quartz diorite T-1G, discussing homogeneity issues and providing new data. There is a need for additional preparation of reliable reference materials.
Cite this paper: Andrade, S. , Ulbrich, H. , de Barros Gomes, C. and Martins, L. (2014) Methodology for the Determination of Trace and Minor Elements in Minerals and Fused Rock Glasses with Laser Ablation Associated with Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-Q-ICPMS). American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 701-721. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.511079.

[1]   Gunther, D., Bleiner, D., Guillong, M., Hattendorf, B. and Horn, I. (2001) Access to Isotopic and Elemental Composition and Their Distribution in Solid Materials by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Chimia, 55, 778-782.

[2]   Montaser, A. (1998) Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Wiley-VCH, Washington DC, 964.

[3]   Bludy, J. and Wood, B. (1994) Prediction of Crystal-Melt Partition Coefficients from Elastic Module. Nature, 372, 452-454.

[4]   Hanchar, J.M. and Van Westrenen, W. (2007) Rare Earth Element Behaviour in Zircon-Melt Systems. Elements, 3, 37-42.

[5]   Eggins, S.M., Kinsley, L.P.J. and Shelley, J.M.G. (1998) Deposition and Element Fractionation Processes during Atmospheric Pressure Laser Sampling for Analysis by ICP-MS. Applied Surface Science, 127-129, 278-286.

[6]   Kock, J. and Günther, D. (2011) Reviews of the State-of-the-Art of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Applied Spectroscopy, 65, 155A-162A.

[7]   O’Connor, C., Sharp, B.L. and Evans, P. (2006) On-Line Additions of Aqueous Standards for Calibration of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: Theory and Comparison of Wet and Dry Conditions. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 21, 556-565.

[8]   USGS—United States of Geological Survey (2002) Geochemical Reference Materials and Certificates.

[9]   Jochum, K.P., Weis, U., Stoll, B., Kuzmin, D., Yang, Q., Raczek, I., Jacob, D.E., Stracke, A., Birbaum, K., Frick, D.A., Günther, D. and Enzweiler, J. (2011) Determination of Reference Values for NIST SRM 610-617 Glasses Following ISO Guidelines. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 35, 397-429.

[10]   Jochum, J.P., Willbold, M., Raczek, I., Stoll, B. and Herwing, K. (2005) Chemical Characterization of the USGS Reference Glasses GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, BCR-2G, BHVO-2G and BIR-1G Using EPMA, ID-TIMS, ID-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 29, 285-302.

[11]   Gao, S., Liu, X., Yuan, H., Hattendorf, B., Gunther, D. and Hu, S.H. (2002) Determination of Forty Two Major and Trace Elements in USGS and NIST SRM Glasses by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Geostandards Newsletter, 26, 181-196.

[12]   Jackson, S.E. (2001) The Application of Nd:YAG Lasers in LA-ICP-MS. In: Sylvester, P.J., Ed., Laser Ablation-ICP Mass Spectrometry in the Earth Sciences: Principles and Applications, Vol. 29, Short Courses Series, Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC), 29-45.

[13]   Longerich, H.P., Jackson, S.E. and Gunther, D. (1996) Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Transient Signal Data Acquisition and Analyte Concentration Calculation. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 11, 899-904.

[14]   Klaus Peter Jochum, K.O., Nohl, U., Herwig, K., Lammel, E., Stoll, B. and Hofmann, A.W. (2005) GeoReM: A New Geochemical Database for Reference Materials and Isotopic Standards. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 29, 333-338.

[15]   Jochum, J.P., Stoll, B., Herwing, K., Willbold, M., Hofmann, A.W., et al. (2006) MPI-DING Reference Glasses for in Situ Microanalysis: New Reference Values for Element Concentrations and Isotope Ratios. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 7, Q02008.

[16]   Sun, S. and McDonough, W.F. (1989) Chemical and Isotopic Systematic of Oceanic Basalts: Implications for Mantle Composition and Processes. In: Saunders, A.D. and Norry, M.J., Eds., Magmatism in the Ocean Basins, Special Publication 42, Geological Society of London, London, 313-345.

[17]   Rollinson, H. (1993) Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation. Longman Scientific & Technical, London, 352.

[18]   Borisova, A.Y., Freydier, R., Polvé, M., Jochum, K.P. and Candaudap, F. (2010) Multi-Elemental Analysis of ATHO-G Rhyolitic Glass (MPI-DING Reference Material) by Femtosecond and Nanosecond LA-ICP-MS: Evidence for Significant Heterogeneity of B, V, Zn, Mo, Sn, Sb, Cs, W, Pt and Pb at the Millimetre Scale. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 34, 245-255.

[19]   Jochum, K.P., Dingwell, D.B., Rocholl, A., Stoll, B., Hofmann, A.W., Becker, S., Besmehn, A., Bessette, D., Dietze, H.J., Dulski, P., Erzinger, J., Hellebrand, E., Hoppe, P., Horn, I., Janssens, K., Jenner, G.A., Klein, M., McDonough, W.F., Maetz, M., Mezger, K., Münker, C., Nikogosian, I.K., Pickhardt, C., Raczek, I., Rhede, D., Seufert, H.M., Simakin, S.G., Sobolev, A.V., Spettel, B., Straub, S., Vincze, L., Wallianos, A., Weckwerth, G., Weyer, S., Wolf, D. and Zimmer, M. (2000) The Preparation and Preliminary Characterization of Eight Geological MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In-Situ Microanalysis. Geostandards Newsletter, 24, 87-133.

[20]   Kempenaers, L., Janssens, K.K., Jochum, K.P., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Somogyi, A., Drakopoulos, M. and Adams, F. (2003) Micro-Heterogeneity Study of Trace Elements in USGS, MPI-DING and NIST Glass Reference Materials by Means of Synchrotron Micro-XRF. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 18, 350-357.

[21]   Aries, S., Valladon, M., Polvé, M. and Dupré, B. (2000) A Routine Method for Oxide and Hydroxide Interference Corrections in ICP-MS Chemical Analysis of Environmental and Geological Samples. Geostandards Newsletter, 24, 19-31.

[22]   Mank, A.J.G. and Mason, P.R.D. (1999) A Critical Assessment of Laser Ablation ICP-MS as an Analytical Tool for Depth in Silica-Based Glass Samples. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 14, 1143-1153.

[23]   Dulski, P. (2001) Reference Materials for Geochemical Studies: New Analytical Data by ICP-MS and Critical Discussion of Reference Values. Geostandards Newsletter, 25, 87-125.

[24]   Hu, M.Y., Fan, X.T., Stoll, B., Kuzmin, D., Liu, Y., Liu, Y., Sun, W., Wang, G., Zhan, X.C. and Jochum, K.P. (2011) Preliminary Characterization of New Reference Materials for Microanalysis: Chinese Geological Standards Glasses CGSG-1, CGSG-2, CGSG-4 and CGSG-5. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 35, 235-251.