JGIS  Vol.6 No.4 , August 2014
Spatial Analysis Approach in Revealing the Global Sinks of Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide through “Leave One Out” Method
ABSTRACT

Global warming and climate change are the most important ecological issues of our time. The most well-known factor in this phenomenon is the redundancy of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the past 50 years the amount of residual CO2 in the atmosphere has risen from 40% to 45%. Reducing CO2 redundancy requires precise knowledge of the gas sources and sinks throughout the atmosphere. Despite having a leading role in residual gas levels of atmosphere, the diagnosis and types of changes of absorbing carbon dioxide are very much in doubt. Atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentrations are highly precise and provide a reliable measure of increase of CO2 in the atmosphere every year but they do not lead to the location of sources and sinks. Studies about understanding CO2 cycles began mainly around 1990 and most of these studies have been focused on non-spatial analysis. By ignoring the spatial effects, an important property such as closeness (adjacent) has been disregarded. The emission sources of gas are stronger than their sink sources i.e., whenever a sink is adjacent to a strong emission source, the measurements will show a massive existence of CO2 gas in that region although there exists a fine COgas sink at below. Using the global measurements of CO2 and applying spatial analysis approach to “Leave One Out” method, our studies reveal the most probable spots of CO2 sources and sinks and that Negev Desert in Middle East is a distinguished CO2 sink region.


Cite this paper
Madad, A. , Jamshid, M. , Gharagozlou, A. , Nejad, A. , Javidane, A. and Ranjbar, H. (2014) Spatial Analysis Approach in Revealing the Global Sinks of Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide through “Leave One Out” Method. Journal of Geographic Information System, 6, 286-297. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2014.64026.
References
[1]   Shim, C., Lee J. and Wang Y. (2013) Effect of Continental Sources and Sinks on the Seasonal and Latitudinal Gradient of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over East Asia. Atmospheric Environment, 79, 853-860. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.07.055

[2]   Schonwiese, C.-D., Houghton, J.T., Meira Filho, L.G., Callander, B.A., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A. and Maskell, K. (Eds.) (1997) Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 27, 105-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005850912627

[3]   Middelkoop, H., Daamen, K., Gellens, D., Grabs, W., Kwadijk, J.C.J., Lang, H., Parmet, B.W.A.H., Schodler, B., Schulla, J. and Wilke, K. (2001) Impact of Climate Change on Hydrological Regimes and Water Resources Management in the Rhine Basin. Climatic Change, 49, 105-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010784727448

[4]   Heidersbach, T., et al. (2012) Climate Action Plan Technical Report.

[5]   Grewe, V., Dahlmanna, K., Matthesa, S. and Steinbrechtb, W. (2012) Attributing Ozone to NO < sub> x Emissions: Implications for Climate Mitigation Measures. Atmospheric Environment, 59, 102-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.05.002

[6]   Sarmiento, J.L., Wofsy, S.C. and Us, A. (1999) Carbon Cycle Science Plan.

[7]   Kuang, Z., et al. (2002) Spaceborne Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 by High-Resolution NIR Spectrometry of Reflected Sunlight: An Introductory Study. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 11-1-11-4.

[8]   Ciais, P., et al. (1995) A Large Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial CO2 Sink Indicated by the 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric CO2. Science, New York, Washington, 1098-1098.

[9]   Tans, P.P., Fung, I.Y. and Takahashi, T. (1990) Observational Constraints on the Global Atmospheric CO2 Budget.

[10]   Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Canadell, J.G., Marland, G., et al. (2009) Trends in the Sources and Sinks of Carbon Dioxide. Nature Geoscience, 2, 831-836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo689

[11]   Canadell, J.G., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Field, C.B., Buitenhuis, E.T., Ciais, P., Conway, T.J., Gillett, N.P., Houghton, R.A. and Marland, G. (2007) Contributions to Accelerating Atmospheric CO2 Growth from Economic Activity, Carbon Intensity, and Efficiency of Natural Sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 18866-18870.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702737104

[12]   Susan, S. (2007) Climate Change 2007. The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[13]   Conway, T.J., Raatz, W.E. and Richard, H.G. (1985) Airborne CO2 Measurements in the Arctic during Spring 1983. Atmospheric Environment (1967), 19, 2195-2201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(85)90128-3

[14]   Assonov, S.S., Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M., Schuck, T. and Umezawa, T. (2013) N2O as a Tracer of Mixing Stratospheric and Tropospheric Air Based on CARIBIC Data with Applications for CO2. Atmospheric Environment, 79, 769-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.07.035

[15]   Longinelli, A., Langone, L., Ori, C. and Selmo, E. (2011) Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations and δ13C over Western and Eastern Mediterranean Basins during Summer 2007. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 5514-5522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.024

[16]   Nassar, R., Jones, D.B.A., Kulawik, S.S., Worden, J.R., Bowman, K.W., Andres, R.J., et al. (2011) Inverse Modeling of CO2 Sources and Sinks Using Satellite Observations of CO2 from TES and Surface Flask Measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 6029-6047.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-6029-2011

[17]   NOAA (2011) CCGG Measurement Sites. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/tables/?columns=code% 7Cname%7Ccountry%7Clat%7Clon%7Calt%7Ccoop_name&table_type=active&project=all¶m=CO& pos_label=decimal

[18]   CO2/Flask. FTP Directory (2011) /data/trace_gases/co2/flask/ at aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov.
ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/co2/flask/

[19]   Fan, S., Gloor, M., Mahlman, J., Pacala, S., Sarmiento, J., Takahashi, T. and Tans, P. (1998) A Large Terrestrial Carbon Sink in North America Implied by Atmospheric and Oceanic Carbon Dioxide Data and Models. Science, 282, 442-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.282.5388.442

[20]   Legendre, P. (1993) Spatial Autocorrelation: Trouble or New Paradigm? Ecology, 74, 1659-1673. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1939924

[21]   Fortin, M.J., Dale, M.R. and Hoef, J. (2006) Spatial Analysis in Ecology. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics.

[22]   Peucker, T.K., et al. (1978) The Triangulated Irregular Network. In: American Society of Photogrammetry, Digital Terrain Models Symposium, St. Louis, Missouri, 9-11 May 1978, 532.

[23]   Abdi, H. and Williams, L. (2010) Encyclopedia of Research Design. Jackknife, I.N.S., Ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks.

[24]   Martinez, N.T., Horvitz, C., Erickson, K. and Palmer, M.I. (2013) Spatial Distributions of Native and Invasive Shrubs in a Sub-Tropical Forest.

[25]   Griffith, D.A. (1987) Spatial Autocorrelation. Association of American Geographers, Washington DC.

[26]   Dormann, C.F., McPherson, J.M., Araújo, M.B., Bivand, R., Bolliger, J., Carl, G., et al. (2007) Methods to Account for Spatial Autocorrelation in the Analysis of Species Distributional Data: A Review. Ecography, 30, 609-628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2007.0906-7590.05171.x

[27]   Naimi, B., Skidmore, A.K., Groen, T.A. and Hamm, N.A.S. (2011) Spatial Autocorrelation in Predictors Reduces the Impact of Positional Uncertainty in Occurrence Data on Species Distribution Modelling. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 1497-1509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02523.x

[28]   De Jong, P., Sprenger, C. and Veen, F. (1984) On Extreme Values of Moran’s I and Geary’s c. Geographical Analysis, 16, 17-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1984.tb00797.x

[29]   Joseph, V.R., Hung, Y. and Sudjianto, A. (2008) Blind Kriging: A New Method for Developing Metamodels. Journal of Mechanical Design, 130, Article ID: 031102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2829873

[30]   Xiong, Y., Chen, W., Apley, D. and Ding, X.R. (2007) A Non-Stationary Covariance-Based Kriging Method for Metamodelling in Engineering Design. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 71, 733-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nme.1969

[31]   Hanna, S.R. (1989) Confidence Limits for Air Quality Model Evaluations, as Estimated by Bootstrap and Jackknife Resampling Methods. Atmospheric Environment (1967), 23, 1385-1398.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(89)90161-3

[32]   Thiessen, A.H. (1911) Precipitation Averages for Large Areas. Monthly Weather Review, 39, 1082-1089.

[33]   Brassel, K.E. and Reif, D. (1979) A Procedure to Generate Thiessen Polygons. Geographical Analysis, 11, 289-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1979.tb00695.x

[34]   McGinnis, D. (2005) Vertical Pathways of Methane in the Black Sea. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 7, Article ID: 00077.

[35]   Tal, A. and Gurion, B. (2009) Making Forestry Sustainable: Recent Israeli Innovations in Eucalyptus Farming and Carbon Sequestration. In: Seeing the Forest beyond the Trees, Proceedings of the 2009 IUFRO 3.08 Small-Scale Forestry Symposium, Morgantown, West Virginia, 7-11 June 2009, 237-244.

 
 
Top