JBiSE  Vol.4 No.5 , May 2011
Mechanical loading of adipose derived stromal cells causes cell alignment
ABSTRACT
Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Current research involving growth and characterization of adipose derived stromal cells (ADSC) in vitro offers a potential solution for the treatment of cartilage de-fects that will allow patients to return to the physical activities they were involved in. Studies have shown that fibroblast cells grown in vitro respond to cyclic mechanical stretching by orienting in a direction perpendicular to the direction of stretch. ADSCs were isolated from human peripatellar adipose tissue discards. Cells were cultured until confluent and seeded at a density of approximately 105 cells in silicone wells pretreated with ProNectin-F Plus. After stret-ching, relative alignment of the cells was ascertained using imaging software. Stretching cells for 3, 4, 8 and 12 hours resulted in noticeable cellular alignment of approximately 60? relative to the direction of loading. Cell alignment is crucial for developing tis-sue-engineered cartilage that has similar mechanical properties to native cartilage. Mechanically loading cells is one method to achieve cell alignment. Since cell differentiation will be initiated after alignment, the resulting chondrocytes will be aligned, leading to organized collagen formation and resulting in a hya-line-like cartilage structure.

Cite this paper
nullGonzales, D. , Ferng, A. , Geffre, C. , Borg, J. , Miller, M. and Szivek, J. (2011) Mechanical loading of adipose derived stromal cells causes cell alignment. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 4, 357-361. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2011.45045.
References
[1]   Buckwalter, J.A. and Mankin, H.J. (1997) Articular cartilage. II. Degeneration and osteoarthritis, repair, regeneration, and transplantation. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 79, pp. 612-632.

[2]   Williams, R.J. 3rd and Harnly, H.W. (2007) Microfracture: Indications, technique and results. Instructional Course Lectures, 56, 419-428.

[3]   Peterson, L., Brittberg, M., Kiviranta, I., Akerlund, E.L. and Lindahl, A. (2002) Autologous chondrocyte transplantation: Biomechanics and long-term durability. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 2-12.

[4]   Marcacci, M., Kon, E., Zaffagnini, S., Iacono, F., Neri, M.P., Vascellari, A., Visani, A. and Russo, A. (2005) Multiple osteochondral arthroscopic grafting (mosaicplasty) for cartilage defects of the knee: Prospective study results at 2-year follow-up. Arthroscopy, 21, 462-470. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2004.12.003

[5]   Ocelus, S.M. (2000) Autologous cultured chondroctes for the treatment of knee cartilage injury. Orthopaedic Nursing, 19, 19-27. doi:10.1097/00006416-200019040-00006

[6]   Huntley, J.S., Bush, P.G., McBirnie, J.M., Simpson, A.H. and Hall, A.C. (2005) Chondrocyte death associated with human femoral osteochondral harvest as performed for mosaicplasty. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Am), 87, 351-360. doi:10.2106/JBJS.D.02086

[7]   Brittberg, M., Tallheden, T., Sjorgren-Jansson, B., Lindahl, A. and Peterson, L. (2001) Autologous chondroctes used for articular cartilage repair: An update. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 391 Suppl, S337-S3348. doi:10.1097/00003086-200110001-00031

[8]   Knutsen, G., Drogset, J.O., Engebretsen, L., Grontvedt, T., Isaksen, V., Ludvigsen, T.C., Roberts, S., Solheim, E., Strand, T. and Johansen, O. (2007) A randomized trial comparing autologous chondrocyte implantation with microfracture. Findings at five years. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Am), 89, 2105-2112. doi:10.2106/JBJS.G.00003

[9]   Almqvist, K.F., Dhollander, A.A.M., Verdonk, P.C.M., Forsyth, R. and Verbruggen, G. (2009) Treatment of cartilage defects in the knee using alginate beads containing human mature allogenic chondrocytes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 1920-1929. doi:10.1177/0363546509335463

[10]   Gikas, P.D., Bayliss, L., Bentley, G. and Briggs, T.W. (2009) An oberview of autologous chondrocyte implantation. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Br), 91, 997-1006. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.91B8.21824

[11]   Frisbie, D.D., Lu, Y., Kawcak, C.E., DiCarlo, E.F., Binette, F. and McIlwraith, C.W. (2009) In vivo evaluation of autologous cartilage fragment-loaded scaffolds implanted into equine articular defects and compared with autologous chondrocyte implantation. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37 Suppl 1, 71S-80S. doi:10.1177/0363546509348478

[12]   Getgood, A., Brooks, R., Fortier, L. and Rushton, N. (2009) Articular cartilage tissue engineering: Today’s research, tomorrow’s practice? Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Br), 91, 565-576. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.91B5.21832

[13]   Guilak, F., Estes, B.T., Diekman, B.O., Moutos, F.T. and Gimble, J.M. (2010) Nicolas Andry Award: Multipotent adult stem cells from adipose tissue for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 468, 2530-2540. doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1410-9

[14]   English, A., Jones, E.A., Corscadden, D., Henshaw, K., Chapman, T., Emery, P. and McGonagle, D. (2007) A comparative assessment of cartilage and joint fat pad as a potential source of cells for autologous therapy development in knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford), 46, 1676-1683. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kem217

[15]   Szivek, J.A., Wiley, D., Cox, L., Harris, D., DeYoung, D.W. and Grana, W.A. (2006) Stem cells can be extracted from adipose tissue and converted to chondrrocytes for tissue engineering. Scientific Session of the Academy of Surgical Research, Scottsdale.

[16]   Szivek, J.A., Wiley, D., Cox, L., Harris, D., Margolis, D.S. and Grana, W.A. (2007) Stem cells grown in dynamic culture on micro patterned surfaces can be used to engineer cartilage-like tissue. Orthopaedic Research Society, San Diego.

[17]   Wang, J.H., Gia, F., Gilbert, T.W. and Woo, S.L. (2003) Cell orientation determines the alignment of cell-produced collagenous matrix. Journal of Biomechanics, 36, 97-102. doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00233-6

[18]   Wang, J.H., Yang, G., Li, Z. and Shen, W. (2004) Fibroblast responses to cyclic mechanical stretching depend on cell orientation to the stretching direction. Journal of Biomechanics, 37, 573-576. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.09.011

[19]   Wang, J.H., Goldschmidt-Clermont, P., Wille, J. and Yin, F.C. (2001) Specificity of endothelial cell reorientation in response to cyclic mechanical stretching. Journal of Biomechanics, 34, 1563-1572. doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00150-6

[20]   Dodd, J.G., Good, M.M., Nguyen, T.L., Grigg, A.I., Batia, L.M. and Standley, P.R. (2006) In vitro biophysical strain model for understanding mechanisms of osteopathic manipulative treatment. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 106, 157- 166.

[21]   Henshaw, D.R., Attia, E., Bhargava, M. and Hannafin, J.A. (2006) Canine ACL fibroblast integrin expression and cell alignment in response to cyclic tensile strain in three-dimensional collagen gels. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 24, 481-490. doi:10.1002/jor.20050

[22]   Szivek, J.A., Margolis, D.S., Schnepp, A.B., Grana, W.A. and Williams, S.K. (2007) Selective cell proliferation can be controlled with CPC particle coatings. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, 81A, 939-947. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.31116

[23]   Pfister, B.J., Weihs, T.P., Betenbaugh, M. and Bao, G. (2003) An in vitro uniaxial stretch model for axonal injury. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 31, 589-598. doi:10.1114/1.1566445

[24]   Neidlinger-Wilke, C., Grood, E., Claes, L. and Brand, R. (2002) Fibroblast orientation to stretch begins within three hours. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 20, 953-956. doi:10.1016/S0736-0266(02)00024-4

[25]   Hunziker, E.B., Quinn, T.M. and Hauselmann, H.J. (2002) Quantitative structural organization of normal adult human articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 10, 564-572. doi:10.1053/joca.2002.0814

[26]   Grande, D.A., Breitbart, A.S., Mason, J., Paulino, C., Laser, J. and Schwartz, R.E. (1999) Cartilage tissue engineering: Current limitations and solutions. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 367 Suppl, S176-S185. doi:10.1097/00003086-199910001-00019

[27]   Solchaga, L.A., Goldberg, V.M. and Caplan, A.I. (2001) Cartilage regeneration using principles of tissue engineering. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 391 Suppl, S161-S170. doi:10.1097/00003086-200110001-00016

 
 
Top