The purpose of this article
has been to explore why ethnic conflicts tend to break out in all ethnically
divided societies. The principal explanation was traced to the evolved
disposition for ethnic nepotism shared by all human populations. Ethnic
nepotism was measured roughly by the degree of ethnic heterogeneity of the
populations. It was correlated with the scale of ethnic conflicts in the group
of 187 countries. The results of correlation analysis indicate that ethnic
heterogeneity explains 55% of the variation in the scale of ethnic conflicts,
and the results of regression analysis disclose that the same relationship more
or less applies to all 187 countries. These results led to the conclusion that
ethnic nepotism is the common cross-cultural background factor which supports
the persistence of ethnic conflicts in the world as long as there are
ethnically divided societies.
Cite this paper
Vanhanen, T. (2014) Ethnic Nepotism as a Cross-Cultural Background Factor of Ethnic Conflicts. Open Journal of Political Science
, 143-155. doi: 10.4236/ojps.2014.43016
 Van den Berghe, P. L. (1981). The Ethnic Phenomenon. Westport, CT: Praeger.
 The CIA World Factbook 2014 (2013). New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
 Gardner, H. S. (1998). Comparative Economic Systems (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Dryden Press.
 Giddens, A. (1995). Sociology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
 Goetze, D. (2001). Evolutionary Theory, in Encyclopedia of Nationalism (Vol. 1). San Diego: Academic Press.
 Gurr, T. R. (1993). Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflict. Washingon, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
 Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The Genetic Evolution of Social Behavior. I. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1-16.
 2014 Index of Economic Freedom. http://www.heritage.org/index/about
 Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2012). Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for Social Sciences. London: Ulster Institute for Social Research.
 Nafziger, E. W. (1997). The Economics of Developing Countries (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
 Nyborg, H. (Ed.) (2013). Race and Sex Differences in Intelligence and Personality. A Tribute to Richard ynn at 80. London: Ulster Institute for Social Research.
 Rupesinghe, K. (1988). Theories of Conflict Resolution and Their Applicability to Protracted Ethnic Conflict. In K. Rupesinghe (Ed.), Ethnic Conflict and Human Rights. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
 Rushton, J. P. (1986). Gene—Culture Coevolution and Genetic Similarity Theory: Implications for Ideology, Ethnic Nepotism, and Geopolitics. Politics and the Life Sciences, 4, 144-148.
 Salter, F. (2003). On Genetics Interests: Family, Ethny and Humanity in an Age of Mass Migration. Frankfurt of Main: Peter Lang.
 Smith, A. D. (1987). The Ethnic Origins of Nations. New York: Basil Blackwell.
 Thayer, B. A. (2004). Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
 UNDP (2013). Human Development Report 2013. The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
 Vanhanen, T. (1989). Politics of Ethnic Nepotism. 10th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies, 28 September -1 October 1989, Venice.
 Vanhanen, T. (1990). A Process of Democratization: A Comparative Study of 147 States, 1980-88. New York: Crane Russak.
 Vanhanen, T. (1991). Politics of Ethnic Nepotism in India. In D. Weidemann (Ed.), Ethnicity and Political Development in South Asia (pp. 69-92). New Delhi: Manohar.
 Vanhanen, T. (1992). Politics of Ethnic Nepotism: India as an Example. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.
 Vanhanen, T. (1997). Prospects of Democracy. A Study of 172 Countries. London and New York: Routledge.
 Vanhanen, T. (1999). Ethnic Conflicts Explained by Ethnic Nepotism (Vol. 7). Stamford, Connecticut: JAI Press.
 Vanhanen, T. (2009). The Limits of Democratization: Climate, Intelligence, and Resource Distribution. Augusta, Georgia: Washington Summit Publishers.
 Vanhanen, T. (2012). Ethnic Conflicts: Their Biological Roots in Ethnic Nepotism. London: Ulster Institute for Social Research.
 Wikipedia (2014). Conflict (Process). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conflict_(process)
 Wikipedia (2014). Ethnic Conflict. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_conflict