OJMS  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2014
Changes in Ammonium and pH within Intertidal Sediments in Relation to Temperature and the Occurrence of Non-Indigenous Bivalves
ABSTRACT
Our objective was to determine the role of two invasive bivalves on the concentration of ammonium as well as pH within intertidal surface sediments (0 - 3 and 3 - 6 cm depth) and interstitial waters, within the context of a warming environment. To meet this objective we applied both controlled laboratory (microcosm) and field (mesocosm) experiments where we varied bivalve presence and absence and sediment temperature. Mesocosm sampling was tide dependent as we attempted to capture changes in ammonium concentration and pH as related to flood and ebb tide. We focused on ammonium as this nutrient is typically a limiting nutrient in oceanic systems and its cycling is a key process that regulates biological productivity. We also determined pH because of the increasing threat of ocean acidification. Integration of laboratory and field studies suggests that bivalves significantly contribute to ammonium to the intertidal with this amount increasing with increasing temperature. This ammonium is then released from the sediment as a “pulse” to overlying seawater on the flood tide. Under laboratory conditions, increased temperature and density of bivalves decreased overlying water pH. Mesocosm studies suggested some tide dependence of pH with flood tide acting as a buffer, increasing pH on the flood tide, after sediment exposure during ebb tide. Increased numbers of invasive bivalves within a warming environment are likely to increase amounts of ammonium released as a pulse on flood tides from intertidal ecosystems making this region a source of ammonium to coastal seas. Greater numbers of non-indigenous bivalves within the intertidal could also contribute to increased acidity within these regions although the significance of such increases is unknown.

Cite this paper
Bendell, L. , Chan, K. , Crevecoeur, S. and Prigent, C. (2014) Changes in Ammonium and pH within Intertidal Sediments in Relation to Temperature and the Occurrence of Non-Indigenous Bivalves. Open Journal of Marine Science, 4, 151-162. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2014.43015.
References
[1]   Jickell, T.D. (1998) Nutrient Biogeochemistry of the Coastal Zone. Science, 281, 217-222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5374.217

[2]   Sandwell, D.R., Pilditch, C.A. and Lohrer, A.M. (2009) Density Dependent Effects of an Infaunal Suspension-Feeding Bivalve (Austrovenus stutchburyi) on Sandflat Nutrient Fluxes and Microphytobenthic Productivity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 373, 16-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2009.02.015

[3]   Dame, R.F. (1996) Ecology of Marine Bivalves, an Ecosystem Approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 254 p.

[4]   Bendell, L.I. (2013) Evidence for Declines in the Native Leukoma staminea as a Result of the Intentional Introduction of the Non-Native Venerupis philippinarum in Coastal British Columbia, Canada. Estuaries and Coasts, 37, 369-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12237-013-9677-1

[5]   Dudas, S.E. and Dower, J.F. (2006) Reproductive Ecology and Dispersal Potential of Varnish Clam, Nuttallia obscurata, a Recent Invader in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 320, 195-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps320195

[6]   Chan, K. and Bendell, L.I. (2013) Potential Effects of an Invasive Bivalve, Nuttallia obscurata, on Biogeochemical Cycling in the Intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 444, 66-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.03.013

[7]   Gazeau, F., Parker, L.M. and Commeau, S. (2013) Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Shelled Molluscs. Marine Biology, 160, 2207-2245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2219-3

[8]   Chan, K. (2012) Potential Effects of an Invasive Bivalve, Nuttallia obscurata, on Biogeochemical Cycling in the Intertidal. M.Sc. Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.

[9]   Trevors, J.T. (1996) Sterilization and Inhibition of Microbial Activity in Soil. Journal of Microbiology Methods, 26, 53-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2219-3

[10]   Harrison, P.J. and Berges, J.A. (2005) Marine Culture Media. In: Andersen, R.A., Ed., Algal Culturing Techniques, Elseviser, Burlington, 25 p.

[11]   Newell, R.I.E., Cornwell, J.C. and Owens, M. (2002) Influence of Experimental Bivalve Biodeposition and Microphytobenthos on Nitrogen Dynamics: A Laboratory Study. Limnology and Oceanography, 47, 1367-1379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4319/lo.2002.47.5.1367

[12]   Nollet, L.M.L. (2000) Handbook of Water Analysis. Marcel Dekker, New York.

[13]   Bendell, L.I., Duckham, C., L’Espérance, T. and Whiteley, J.A. (2010) Changes in Geochemical Foreshore Attributes as a Consequence of Intertidal Shellfish Aquaculture: A Case Study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 404, 91-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps08487

[14]   Hursthouse, A.S., Iqbal, P.P. and Denman, R. (1993) Sampling Interstitial Waters from Intertidal Sediments: An Inexpensive Device to Overcome an Expensive Problem? Analyst, 118, 1461-1462.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9931801461

[15]   Keeney, D.R. and Nelson, D.W. (1982) Nitrogen-Organic Forms. In: Page, A.L., Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edition, Soil Science of America, Madison, 674-682.

[16]   Gosling, E. (2003) Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology and Culture. Fishing New Books, Blackwell Publishing, 443 p.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470995532

[17]   Zhu, S., Saucier, B., Durfey, J., Chen, S. and Dewey, B. (1999) Waste Excretion Characteristics of Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) under Different Temperature Conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 20, 231-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(99)00015-1

[18]   Han, K.N., Lee, S.W. and Wang, S.Y. (2008) The Effect of Temperature on the Energy Budget of the Manila Clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. Aquaculture International, 16, 143-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10499-007-9133-y

[19]   Aldridge, D.W., Payne, B.S. and Miller, A.C. (1995) Oxygen Consumption, Nitrogenous Excretion, and Filtration Rates of Dreissena polymorpha at Acclimation Temperatures between 20°C and 32°C. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences, 52, 1761-1767.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f95-768

[20]   Sobral, P. and Widdows, J. (1997) Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Scope for Growth and Resistance to Air Exposure of the Clam Ruditapes decussats (L.), from Southern Portugal. Scientia Marina, 61, 163-171.

[21]   Lükewille, A. and Alewell, C. (2008) Acidification. In: Jorgensen, S.E. and Fath, B., Eds., Encyclopedia of Ecology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 23-31.

[22]   Nizzoli, D., Bartoli, M. and Viaroli, P. (2007) Oxygen and Ammonium Dynamics during a Farming Cycling of the Bivalve Tapes philippinarum. Hydrobiologia, 587, 25-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-007-0683-9

[23]   Maksymowska-Brossard, D. and Piekarek-Jankowska, H. (2001) Seasonal Variability of Benthic Ammonium Release in the Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea). Oceanologia, 43, 113-136.

[24]   Cabrtia, M.T., Fernanod, C. and Vale, C. (1998) The Effect of Tidal Range on the Flushing of Ammonium from Intertidal Sediments of the Tagus Estuary, Portugal. Oceanologica Acta, 22, 291-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0399-1784(99)80053-X

[25]   Hou, L.J., Liu, M., Xu, S.Y., Ou, D.N., Lu, J.J., Yu, J., Cheng, S.B. and Yang, Y. (2005) The Effects of Semi-Lunar Spring and Neap Tidal Change on Nutrients Cycling in the Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Environmental Geology, 48, 255-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-1304-4

[26]   Anschutz, P., Smith, T., Mouret, A., Deborde, J., Bujan, S., Poirier, D. and Lecroart, P. (2009) Tidal Sands as Biogeochemical Reactors. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 84, 84-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.06.015

[27]   Sutton, J.N., Johannessen, S.C. and Macdonald, R.W. (2013) A Nitrogen Budget for the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Biogeosciences Discussion, 10, 7135-7169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bgd-10-7135-2013

[28]   Anderson, D.M. Burkholder, J.M., Cochlan, W.P., Glibert, P.M., Gobler, C.J., Heil, C.A., Kudela, R.M., Parsons, M.L., Rense, J.E., Townsend, D.W., Trainer, V.L. and Vargo, G.A. (2008) Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Examining Linkages from Selected Coastal Regions of the United States. Harmful Algae, 8, 39-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2008.08.017

[29]   Adelsman, H. and Binder, L.W., Eds., Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification (2012) Ocean Acidification: From Knowledge to Action, Washington State’s Strategic Response. Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, Washington. Publication No. 12-01-015.

[30]   Waldbusser, G.G., Brunner, E.L., Haley, B.A., Hales, B., Langdon, C.J. and Prahl, F.G. (2013) A Developmental and Energetic Basis Linking Larval Oyster Shell Formation to Ocean Acidification. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2171-2176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/grl.50449

 
 
Top