WJNST  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2014
Determination of Tritium Concentration in Heavy Water
ABSTRACT
In this work, tritium concentration was determined in different D2O enrichment in heavy water samples. Samples were prepared from Arak Heavy Water Production Plant. Tritium concentration was determined utilizing liquid scintillation detector (LSC) system based on β-decay of tritium isotope. In this work instead of simple distillation, the azeotropic distillation method was used. Absorbed spectra and fluorescence spectra were registered by Shimadz spectrometer UV-2100 model and fluorescence spectrometer LS50B model respectively. Tritium concentration was obtained from 1.75 ± 0.80 up 6.16 ± 1.01 Bq/L for 0.35% to 77.50% enrichment of D2O concentration in heavy water samples. Coefficient correlation between tritium concentration and D2O concentration in heavy water R2 = 0.853 was derived. For 99.8% enriched D2O in heavy water, deviation was observed from direct line that caused decreasing of R2.

Cite this paper
Pourimani, R. and Aghamohammadi, M. (2014) Determination of Tritium Concentration in Heavy Water. World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 4, 170-176. doi: 10.4236/wjnst.2014.43022.
References
[1]   Lucas, L.L. and Unterweger, M.P. (2000) Comprehensive Review and Critical Evaluation of the Half-Life of Tritium. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 105, 541-549.

[2]   Fireman, E.L., Defelice, J. and Tilles, D. (1961) Solar Flare Tritium in a Recovered Satellite. Physical Review, 123, 1935.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.123.1935

[3]   Nir, A., Kruger, S.T., Lingenfelter, R.E. and Flamm, E.J. (1966) Natural Tritium. Reviews of Geophysics, 4, 4-441.

[4]   Thompson, R.C. and Ballou, J.E. (1954) Studies of Metabolic Turnover with Tritium as a Tracer: IV Metabolically Inert Liquid and Protein Fractions from the Rat. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 208-228.

[5]   Glasstone and Sesonske (1981) Nuclear Reactor Engineering. 3rd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 9-119.

[6]   National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (1979) Tritium in the Environment. Recommendations of NCRP, NCRP, Bethesda, Report No. 62.

[7]   Dyadin, Yu.V., et al. (1979) Measurement of Tritium Concentration in Heavy-Water Reactor. Atomnaya E`nergiya, 47, 321-323.

[8]   Radioactive Effluent and Environmental Reports.
http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/opsexperience/tritium/plant-info.html

[9]   Harold, T., Peterson, B. and David, A. (1985) Tritium Production, Releases and Population Doses of Nuclear Power Reactors. Fusion Technology, 8, 2544-2550.

[10]   NAS-NRC (2006) Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII-Phase2. National Research Council of the National Academies.

[11]   Makhijani, A. (2008) The Use of Reference Man in Radiation Protection Standards and Guidance with Recommendations for Change.

[12]   Annual Book of ASTM Standards (1978) Part 31, American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

[13]   (1976) EPA Drinking Water Regulations. Federal Register, Vol. 41, No. 133, Friday, July 9, Title 40, Part 141.

[14]   Hilmen, E.-K. (2000) Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures: Tools for Analysis and Studies on Batch Distillation Operation. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

[15]   (1976) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 14th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington.

[16]   Moghissi, A.A., Bretthauer, E.W. and Compton, E.H. (1973) Separation of Water from Biological and Environmental Samples for Tritium Analysis. Analytical Chemistry, 45, 1565-1566.

[17]   Sodd, V.J. and Scholz, K.L. (1969) Analysis of Tritium in Water; A Collaborative Study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 54, 1.

 
 
Top