This study examined differences in tempos of a step test with a
stipulated tempo by age levels and gender. Subjects were 316 healthy males and
females in the age range of 10 - 80 years. They performed the step test twice
for 20 seconds, stepping alternately while a beeping metronome was adjusted to
40 bpm, 60 bpm, and 120 bpm. It was assumed that if the total time discrepancy
between the tempos when the foot was grounded was small, people could adjust
their steps to different tempos well. The results of a three-way ANOVA showed a
significant age difference at 40 bpm. A multiple comparison showed that the
total time discrepancy was smaller in 10 - 50 years old than in 60 - 80 years
old in males and females. The total time discrepancy at 40 bpm was larger than
that at 120 bpm in 10 - 50 years old, and larger in the order of 40, 60, and
120 bpm in 60 - 80 years old. The total time discrepancy showed insignificant
gender differences at all ages and tempos. In conclusion, people over 60 years
were less able to adjust their steps to a slow tempo than people younger than
50 years. Further, it was more difficult for people under 60 years to adjust their
steps to a slower tempo, and a difference in tempos in people over 70 years
largely affected their step movements.
Cite this paper
Yamaji, S. , Demura, S. and Aoki, H. (2014) Age and Gender Differences in the Step Test with Stipulated Tempos. Advances in Aging Research
, 252-256. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.33034
 Aoki, H., Demura, S., Kawabata, H., Sugiura, H., Uchida, Y., Xu, N. and Murase, H. (2002) Evaluating the Effects of Open/Closed Eyes and Age-Related Differences on Center of Foot Pressure Sway during Stepping at a Set Tempo. Advances in Aging Research, 1, 72-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aar.2012.13009
 Hill, K., Bernhardt, J. and McGann, D. (1996) A New Test of Dynamic Standing Balance for Stroke Patients: Reliability, Validity, and Comparison with Healthy Elderly. Physiotherapy Canada, 48, 257-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/ptc.48.4.257
 Nakata, M., Demura, S. and Kitabayashi, T. (2002) Examination of Evaluation Methods by Step Movement for Estimating the Dynamic Balance of the Elderly. Educ Health Exerc, 48, 226-232.
 Ohnishi, A., Togo, F. and Ishimatu, K. (2010) Influence of Age, Falls, and Step Length on the Postural Sway during Rapid Stepping. Dynamics & Design Conference, 10, 621-625.
 Shin, S. and Demura, S. (2007) Effective Tempo of the Step Test for Dynamic Balance Ability in the Elderly. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26, 563-567. http://dx.doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.26.563
 Shin, S. and Demura, S. (2009) Relationship between the Step Test with Stipulated Tempos and Gait Ability in the Elderly. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 28, 49-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.28.49
 Hirase, T., Inokuchi, S., Shiozuka J., Nakahara, K. and Matusaka, N. (2008) Relationship between Balance Ability and Lower Extremity Muscular Strength in the Elderly: Comparison by Gender, Age, and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 23, 641-646.
 Toyama, H. and Fujiwara, K. (1990) Interference of Upper Limbs Exercise with Different Automatized Levels. Physical Fitness Sports and Medicine, 39, 44-52.
 Nishijima, T., Ohtuka, T., Suzuki, K., Tanaka, H., Nakano, T., Takahashi, S., Tabuchi, H., Yamada, M., Matuda, M. and Kuno, S. (2003) Causal Effect of Strength to Walking Ability Development by Exercise Participation of Elderly People in a Community. Physical Fitness Sports and Medicine, 52, 203-212.