AAR  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2014
Correspondence amongst the PENO Test Battery Cognitive Results and Hippocampal Lesions in Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a decline of cognitive functions. Distinctive histopathological hallmarks are neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic alterations. Abnormally enlarged synaptic structures called “Meganeurite clusters” have been linked to plasticity changes. The aims of this study were to determine if cognitive impairment was related to specific neuritic and synaptic degeneration processes in patients with AD, and if the results of a cognitive test could be correlated with the histopathological damage. The neuropsychological evaluation obtained by the Protocole d’evaluation neuropsychologique optimal (PENO) test battery was used in live AD and control individuals. The histopathological evaluation of their brain after their death was carried out with specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to Aβ, pTau protein, synaptophysin, and GAP-43. Images were obtained by confocal microscopy. The results showed a significant difference between healthy controls and Alzheimer’s patients in neuropsychological evaluation and histopathological hallmarks expression. The most significant positive correlation in AD patients was between memory and language results with the PENO test and the presence of Aβ +pTau+ plaques in the hippocampus. An interesting negative correlation was between cognitive impairment and the presence of Meganeuritic clusters, considered as “plasticity” markers. These results strongly supported the use of the PENO battery test to evaluate the progression of cognitive impairment in AD prone individuals and patients due to the strong correlation of the test results with histopathological brain lesions characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease.

Cite this paper
Karla, R. , Alfonso, D. , Blanca, E. , Felipe, M. , Hugo, D. , Francine, G. , Yves, J. , Yves, R. and Jorge, G. (2014) Correspondence amongst the PENO Test Battery Cognitive Results and Hippocampal Lesions in Alzheimer’s Disease. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 239-251. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.33033.
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