ACS  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2014
Minimum and Maximum Temperature Trends in Congo-Brazzaville: 1932-2010

Maximum and minimum temperatures time series of Congo-Brazzaville are analyzed for trend and discontinuities over the period 1932 to 2010. Temperatures series show an irregular increase. A total of 8 synoptic stations show positive trends in their annual mean maximum temperature series, and 7 of them are significant, with higher trends for urban stations. Annual mean minimum temperature showed 6 stations having positive trends. This increase is in relation with observations at regional scale. However, the differences are observed between large towns (Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire), and small or rural towns (Dolisie, Sibiti, Impfondo, Djambala). Trends in diurnal temperature range (DTR) are large positive trends in maximum temperature that are mainly observed in cities. The curve of DTR shows a decreasing trend which indicates the increasing of minimum temperatures. The effects of urbanization on temperature trends are investigated. Most stations regarded as urban stations are still useful for trend analysis; being situated on the suburban of the studied cities, they are therefore, not substantially influenced by the urban heat island.

Cite this paper: Samba, G. and Nganga, D. (2014) Minimum and Maximum Temperature Trends in Congo-Brazzaville: 1932-2010. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 404-430. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.43040.

[1]   Motha, R.P., Leduc, S., Steyeart, L.T., Sakamoto, C.M. and Strommen, N.O. (1980) Precipitations Patterns in West Africa. Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1567-1578.<1567:PPIWA>2.0.CO;2

[2]   Janicot, S. (1992) Spatiotemporal Variability of West African Rainfall. Part 2: Associated Surface and Air Mass Characteristics. Journal of Climate, 5, 499-511.<0499:SVOWAR>2.0.CO;2

[3]   Janicot, S. and Fontaine, B. (1993) L’évolution des idées sur la variabilité interannuelle récente des précipitations en Afrique de l’Ouest. La Météorologie, Série XIII, 1, 28-51.

[4]   Fontaine, B., Janicot, S. and Moron, V. (1995) Rainfall Anomaly Patterns and Wind Field Signals over West Africa in August (1958-1989). Journal of Climate, 8, 1503-1510.<1503:RAPAWF>2.0.CO;2

[5]   Mahé, G., L’Hote, Y., and Olivry, J.C. (2001) Trends and Discontinuities in Regional Rainfall of West and Central Africa: 1951-1989. Hydrological Sciences, 46, 211-226.

[6]   Nicholson, S.E., Dezfuli, A.K. and Klotter, D. (2012) A Two-Century Precipitation Data Set for the Continent of Africa. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 1219-1231.

[7]   Nicholson, S.E. and Dezfuli, A.K. (2013) The Relationship of Rainfall Variability in Western Equatorial Africa to the Tropical Oceans and Atmospheric Circulation. Part I: The Boreal Spring. Journal of Climate, 26, 45-65.

[8]   Mason, S.J. and Joubert, A.M. (1997) Simulated Changes in Extremes Rainfall over Southern Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 17, 291-301.<291::AID-JOC120>3.0.CO;2-1

[9]   Richard, Y., Camberlin, P., Fauchereau, N. and Mulenga, H. (2001) Cohérence inter-saisonnière de la variabilité pluviométrique interannuelle en Afrique du Sud. L’Espace Géographique, 31, 63-72.

[10]   Ogallo, L.J. (1988) Relationship between Seasonal Rainfall in East Africa and the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate, 8, 31-43.

[11]   Beltrondo, G. and Camberlin, P. (1993) International Variability of Rainfall in the Eastern Horn of Africa and indicators of Atmospheric Circulation. Journal of Climate, 13, 533-546.

[12]   Camberlin, P. (1997) Rainfall Anomalies in the Source Region Nile and Their Connection with the Indian Summer Monsoon. Journal of Climate, 10, 1380-1392.<1380:RAITSR>2.0.CO;2

[13]   Smakhtina, O. (1998) Historical Changes in Rainfall Pattern in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Proceedings of International Conference on Water Resources Variability in Africa During the 20th Century, Cote d’Ivoire, 16-19 November 1998, 135-142.

[14]   Mutai, C.C. and Ward, M.N. (2000) East African Rainfall and the Tropical Circulation/Convection on Intraseasonal to Interannual Timescales. Journal of Climate, 13, 3915-3939.<3915:EARATT>2.0.CO;2

[15]   Mpounza, M. Samba, G. Biona B.C. and Massouangui-Kifouala, M. (2003) L’évolution des températures dans le sud du Congo-Brazzaville (1950-1998). Publication de l’ Association Internationale de Climatologie, 15, 428-433.

[16]   Samba, G., Nganga, D. and Mpounza, M. (2008) Rainfall and Temperature Variations over Congo-Brazzaville between 1950 and 1998. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 91, 85-97.

[17]   Hughes, S.H. and Balling, R.C. (1996) Urban Influences on South African Temperature Trends. International Journal of Climatology, 16, 935-940.<935::AID-JOC64>3.0.CO;2-V

[18]   Unganai, L.S. (1997) Surface Temperature Variation over Zimbabwe between 1897 and 1993. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 56, 89-101.

[19]   Hulme, M., Doherty, R., Ngara, T., New, M. and Lister, D. (2001) African Climate Change: 1900-2100. Climate Research, 17, 145-168

[20]   King’uyu, S.M., Ogallo, L.A. and Anyamba, E.K. (2000) Recent Trends of Minimum and Maximum Surface Temperatures over Eastern Africa. Journal of Climate, 13, 2876-2886.<2876:RTOMAM>2.0.CO;2

[21]   Kruger, A.C. and Shongwe, S. (2004) Temperature Trends in South Africa: 1960-2003. International Journal of Climatology, 24, 1929-1945.

[22]   IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. In: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L., Eds., Contribution of Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 996 p.

[23]   Kayane, I. (1960) Temperature Increase Due to the Expansion of Urban Area in Tokyo. Tenki, 7, 269-274.

[24]   Sakakibara, Y. (1996) A Change of Air Temperature with Reurbanization in Tsukuda. Tenki, 43, 25-31.

[25]   Sakakibara, Y. and Owa, K. (2005) Urban-Rural Temperature Differences in Coastal Cities: Influence of Rural Sites. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 811-820.

[26]   Hubbard, K.G. and Lin, X. (2002) Real-Time Data Filtering Models for Air Temperature Measurements. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 671-674.

[27]   Kraus, E.B. (1977) Subtropical Droughts and Cross-Equatorial Energy Transports. Monthly Weather Review, 105, 1009-1018.<1009:SDACEE>2.0.CO;2

[28]   Nicholson, S.E. (1986) The Spatial Coherence of African Rainfall Anomalies: Interhemispheric Teleconnections. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 25, 1365-1381.<1365:TSCOAR>2.0.CO;2

[29]   Osman, Y.Z. and Shamseldin, A.Y. (2002) Qualitative Rainfall Prediction Models for Central and Southern Sudan Using El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Indices. International Journal of Climatology, 22, 1861-1878.

[30]   Sneyers, R. (1975) L’analyse statistique des séries d’observations. Note Technique, 143, OMM, No. 415, 192 p.

[31]   Vandiepenbeeck, M. (1995) Détection pratique de changement de climat dans le cas d’une alternative au caractère aléatoire. Publication de l’Association Internationale de Climatologie, 8, 116-124

[32]   Pettitt, A.N. (1979) A Nonparametric Approach to the Change-Point Problem. Applied Statistics, 28, 126-135.

[33]   Demarée, G.R. (1990) Evidence of Abrupt Climate Change from the Rainfall Data of a Mauritanian Station. Institut Royal de Météorlogie Belgique, Publication, Série A, 124, 80 p.

[34]   Vannitsem, S. and Demarée, G. (1991) Détection et modélisation des sécheresses au Sahel. Hydrologie Continentale, 6, 155-171.

[35]   Coops, A.J. (1992) Analysis of Temperature Series in Europe in Relation to the Detection of Enhanced Greenhouse Effect. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 46, 89-98.

[36]   Easterling, D., Horton, B., Jones, P.D., Peterson, T.C., Karl, T.R., Parker, D.E., Salinger, M.J., Razuvayev, V., Plummer, N., Jamason, P. and Folland, C.K. (1997) Maximum and Minimum Temperature Trends for the Globe. Science, 277, 364-367.

[37]   Tshiala, M.F., Olwoch, J.M. and Engelbrecht, F.A. (2011) Analysis of Temperature Trends over Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal Geography and Geology, 3, 13-21.

[38]   Mühlenbruch-Tegen, A. (1992) Long-Term Surface Temperature Variations in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 88, 197-205.

[39]   Rosenblüth, B., Fuenzalida, H.A. and Aceituno, P. (1997) Recent Temperature Variations in Southern South America. International Journal of Climatology, 17, 67-85.

[40]   Babatolu, J.S. and Akinnubi, R.T. (2013) Surface Temperature Anomalies in the River Niger Basin Development Authority Areas, Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 3, 532-537.