Health  Vol.6 No.13 , July 2014
Comparison of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs with Regard to Depressed, Obsessive-Compulsive and Normal Individuals
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare the meta-cognitive beliefs of three groups consisting of depressed, obsessive-compulsive and normal individuals. This expost facto study was carried out on 174 individuals (58 depressed, 58 obsessive-compulsive, and 58 normal). The depressed and obsessive-compulsive patients were selected from psychological clinics in central and southern Tehran using purposive sampling. The normal group was randomly selected from the staff of the related clinics. Participants completed three questionnaires including the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), and the Meta-CognitionsQuestionnaire-30 (MCQ-30). The MANOVA test was used to analyze the statistical data. There were significant differences between the mean scores with regard to the meta-cognitive beliefs in normal individuals and in patients with depression or obsessive-compulsive disorders. Furthermore, with regard to cognitive confidence and cognitive self-consciousness subscales, there were significant differences between depressed and obsessive-compulsive patients. The mean scores of these two subscales were higher in obsessive-compulsive patient, in comparison with depressed individuals. There was no significant difference between the depressed and obsessive-compulsive groups regarding the three subscales of positive beliefs about worry, uncontrollability and need to control thoughts.

Cite this paper
Moghadam, N. , Abolmaali, K. and Mojtabaie, M. (2014) Comparison of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs with Regard to Depressed, Obsessive-Compulsive and Normal Individuals. Health, 6, 1662-1668. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.613197.
References
[1]   Metcalfe, J.E. and Shimamura, A.P. (1994) Metacognition: Knowing about Knowing. The MIT Press, Cambridge.

[2]   Efklides, A. and Misailidi, P. (2010) Trends and Prospects in Metacognition Research. Springer, New York.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6546-2

[3]   Flavell, J.H. (1979) Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906

[4]   Wells, A. (1995) Meta-Cognition and Worry: A Cognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 301-320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465800015897

[5]   Wells, A. (2002) Emotional Disorders and Metacognition: Innovative Cognitive Therapy. John Wiley, Chichester. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470713662

[6]   Wells, A. (2009) Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression. Guilford Press, New York.

[7]   Sadock, B.J., Kaplan, H.I. and Sadock, V.A. (2007) Kaplan & Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

[8]   Rachman, S. and de Silva, P. (1978) Abnormal and Normal Obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 16, 233-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(78)90022-0

[9]   Borkovec, T.D., Wilkinson, L., Folensbee, R. and Lerman, C. (1983) Stimulus Control Applications to the Treatment of Worry. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 247-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(83)90206-1

[10]   Wells, A. and Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2004) A Short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire: Properties of the MCQ- 30. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 385-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00147-5

[11]   Shirinzadeh Dastgiri, S., Gudarzi, M.A., Ghanizadeh, A. and Taghavi, S.M.R. (2008) Comparison of Metacognitive and Responsibility Beliefs in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Normal Individuals. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 14, 46-55 [in Persian].

[12]   Beck, A., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. and Erbaugh, J. (1961) An Inventory for Measuring Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004

[13]   Edwards, B.C., Lambert, M.J., Moran, P.W., McCully, T., Smith, K.C. and Ellingson, A.G. (1984) A Meta-Analytic Comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as Measures of Treatment Outcome. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 93-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1984.tb00632.x

[14]   Rachman, S.J. and Hodgson, R.J. (1980) Obsessions and Compulsions. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

[15]   Hermans, D., Martens, K., De Cort, K., Pieters, G. and Eelen, P. (2003) Reality Monitoring and Metacognitive Beliefs Related to Cognitive Confidence in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 383-401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00015-3

[16]   Irak, M. and Tosun, A. (2008) Exploring the Role of Metacognition in Obsessive-Compulsive and Anxiety Symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1316-1325.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.01.012

[17]   Papageorgiou, C. and Wells, A. (2001) Metacognitive Beliefs about Rumination in Recurrent Major Depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 160-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(01)80021-3

[18]   Roussis, P. and Wells, A. (2006) Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms: Tests of Relationships with thought Control Strategies and Beliefs as Predicted by the Metacognitive Model. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 111-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.06.019

[19]   Sadati, S.Z. (2012) The Comparison of Metacognitive Beliefs among Schizophrenic and Depressed Patients with the Ones of Normal Group. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2, 79-88 [in Persian].

[20]   Spada, M.M., Nikcevic, A.V., MONETA, G.B. and Wells, A. (2008) Metacognition, Perceived Stress, and Negative Emotion. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1172-1181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.010

 
 
Top