JFCMV  Vol.2 No.3 , July 2014
Effect of Heterogeneity of Porous Media on Gas Permeation and Entrapment
ABSTRACT
Capillary trapping prevents the migration of CO2 in reservoirs due to buoyancy. The residual gas saturation is strongly influenced by the gas saturation after gas injection. In this study, we have investigated the effect of stratified structure of heterogeneous porous media on gas permeation and entrapment. Experiments were carried out at a laboratory condition for a nitrogen-water system with the packed beds of glass beads with various diameters which modeled stratified porous media. In the case of parallel structure, the injected gas selectively percolated into permeable layers. The gas permeation can hardly occur for the less permeable layers because of the capillary entrance pressure. In the case of serial structure, the interface of porous structure hindered the migration of gas across it, because of the capillary entrance pressure. When the gas percolated in the permeable layers, capillary fingering was developed in the layers. However, when the tip of finger reached the interface, fingers grew in tangential directions until the pressure built up to overcome the capillary entrance pressure. As a result, high gas saturation was achieved in the permeable layers of both upward and downward gas injections.

Cite this paper
Mikami, Y. , Deguchi, Y. and Suekane, T. (2014) Effect of Heterogeneity of Porous Media on Gas Permeation and Entrapment. Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, 2, 110-119. doi: 10.4236/jfcmv.2014.23013.
References
[1]   Juans, R., Spiteri, E.J., Orr Jr., F.M. and Blunt, M.J. (2006) Impact of Relative Permeability Hysteresis on Geological CO2 Storage. Water Resource Research, 42, W12418.

[2]   Flett, M., Gurton, R. and Weir, G. (2007) Heterogeneous Saline Formations for Carbon Dioxide Disposal: Impact of Varying Heterogeneity on Containment and Trapping. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 57, 106-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.08.016

[3]   Qi, R., LaForce, T.C. and Blunt, M.J. (2009) Design of Carbon Dioxide Storage in Aquifers. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 3, 195-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.08.004

[4]   Suekane, T., Nobuso, T., Hirai, S. and Kiyota, M. (2008) Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide by Residual Gas and Solubility Trapping. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2, 58-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1750-5836(07)00096-5

[5]   Suekane, T., Zhou, N., Hosokawa, T. and Matsumoto, T. (2010) Direct Observation of Gas Bubbles Trapped in Sandy Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media, 82, 111-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-009-9439-5

[6]   Wildenschild, D., Armstrong R.T., Herring, A.L., Young, I.M. and Carey, J.W. (2010) Exploring Capillary Trapping Efficiency as a Function of Interfacial Tension, Viscosity, and Flow Rate. Energy Procedia, 4, 4945-4952. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.464

[7]   Zhou, N., Matsumoto, T., Hosokawa, T. and Suekane, T. (2010) Pore-Scale Visualization of Gas Trapping in Porous Media by X-Ray CT Scanning. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 21, 262-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2010.05.002

[8]   Al Mansoori, S.K., Itsekiri, E., Iglauer, S., Pentland, C.H., Bijeljic, B. and Blunt, M.J. (2010) Measurements of Non- Wetting Phase Trapping Applied to Carbon Dioxide Storage. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 283- 288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.09.013

[9]   Pentland, C.H., Itsekiri, E., Al-Mansoori, S., Iglauer, S., Bijeljic, B. and Blunt, M.J. (2010) Measurement of Non-Wetting Phase Trapping in Sandpacks. SPE Journal, 15, 274-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115697-PA

[10]   Zhang, D. and Song, J. (2014) Mechanisms for Geological Carbon Sequestration. Prociedia IUTAM, 10, 319-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.piutam.2014.01.027

[11]   Ennis-King, J. and Paterson, L. (2003) Rate of Dissolution Due to Convective Mixing in the Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, 1, 507-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-008044276-1/50081-7

[12]   Lindeberg, E. and Wessel-Berg, D. (1997) Vertical Convection in an Aquifer Column under a Gas Cap of CO2. Energy Conversion and Management, 38, S229-S234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(96)00274-9

[13]   Bachu, S. and Adams, J.J. (2003) Sequestration of CO2 in Geological Media in Response to Climate Change: Capacity of Deep Saline Aquifer to Sequester CO2 in Solution. Energy Conversion and Management, 44, 3151-3175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00101-8

[14]   Ennis-King, J.K., Preston, I. and Paterson L. (2005) Onset of Convention in Anisotropic Porous Media Subject to a Rapid Change in Boundary Conditions. Physics of Fluids, 17, 084107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2033911

[15]   Pruss, K. and Nordbotten, J. (2011) Numerical Simulation Studies of the Long-Term Evolution of a CO2 Plume in a Saline Aquifer with a Sloping Caprock. Transport in Porous Media, 90, 135-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-011-9729-6

[16]   Pau, G.S.H., Bell, J.B., Pruss, K., Almgren, A.S., Lijewski, M.J. and Zhan, K. (2010) High-Resolution Simulation and Characterization of Density-Driven Flow in CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers. Advances in Water Resources, 33, 443- 455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.01.009

[17]   MacMinn, C.W., Szulczewski, M.L. and Juanes, R. (2011) CO2 Migration in Saline Aquifer. Part 2. Capillary and Solubility Trapping. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 688, 321-351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2011.379

[18]   Rochelle, C.A., Czernichowski-Lauriol, I. and Milodowski, A.E. (2004) The Impact of Chemical Reactions on CO2 Storage in Geological Formations: A Brief Review. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 233, 87-106.

[19]   Espinoza, D.N., Kim, S.H. and Santamarina, J.C. (2011) CO2 Geological Storage-Geotechnical Implications. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 15, 707-719.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12205-011-0011-9

[20]   Holtz, M.H. (2002) Residual Gas Saturation to Aquifer Influx: A Calculation Method for 3-D Computer Reservoir Model Construction. SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 30 April-2 May 2002, Article ID: SPE-75502-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75502-MS

[21]   Pentland, C.H., El-Maghraby, R., Iglauer, S. and Blunt, M.J. (2011) Measurement of the Capillary Trapping of Super- Critical Carbon Dioxide in Berea Sandstone. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, Published Online. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL046683

[22]   El-Maghraby, R. and Blunt, M.J. (2012) Residual CO2 Trapping in Indiana Limestone. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 227-233.

[23]   Suekane, T. and Nguyen, H.T. (2013) Relation between the Initial and Residual Gas Saturations of Gases Trapped by Capillarity in Natural Sandstone. Journal of Fluid Science and Technology, 8, 322-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1299/jfst.8.322

[24]   Suekane, T. and Ushita, H. (2011) Effect of Buoyancy on Pore-Scale Characteristics of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media. In: Saba, L., Ed., Computed Tomography—Special Applications, Intech, 179-194.

[25]   Suekane, T. and Okada, K. (2013) Gas Injection in a Water Saturated Porous Medium: Effect of Capillarity, Buoyancy, and Viscosity Ratio. Energy Procedia, 37, 5545-5552.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.475

[26]   Ferer, M., Anna, S.L., Tortora, P., Kadambi, J.R., Oliver, M., Bromhal, G.S. and Smith, D.H. (2011) Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Predicting Its Dependence on Capillary Number and Viscosity Ratio. Transport in Porous Media, 86, 243-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9619-3

[27]   Rostami, B., Kharrat, R., Pooladi-Darvish, M. and Ghotbi, C. (2010) Identification of Fluid Dynamics in Forced Gravity Drainage Using Dimensionless Groups. Transport in Porous Media, 83, 725-740. http://dx.doi.org/10-1007/s11242-009-9478-y

[28]   Setiawan, A., Suekane, T., Deguchi, Y. and Kusano, K. (2014) Three-Dimensional Imaging of Pore-Scale Water Flooding Phenomena in Water-Wet and Oil-Wet Porous Media. Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, 2, 25-31. http://www.dx.doi.org/104236/jfcmv.2014.22005

[29]   Lenomand, R., Touboul, E. and Zarcone, C. (1988) Numerical Models and Experiments on Immiscible Displacements in Porous Media. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 189, 165-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112088000953

[30]   Homsy, G.M. (1987) Viscous Fingering in Porous Media. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 19, 172-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.19.010187.001415

[31]   Måløy, K.J., Feder, J. and Jøssang, T. (1985) Viscous Fingering Fractals in Porous Media. Physical Review Letters, 55, 2688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.2688

[32]   Wilkinson, D. and Willemsen, J.F. (1983) Invasion Percolation: A New Form of Percolation Theory. Journal of Physics A, 16, 3365.

[33]   Furuberg, L., Feder, J., Aharony, A. and Jøssang, T. (1988) Dynamics of Invasion Percolation. Physical Review Letters, 61, 2117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.2117

 
 
Top