with the cancer chemotherapy limit the scope of chemotherapeutic drugs and no
data was available about these side effects in Pakistan. Moreover starvation
based differential chemotherapy has been proved to greatly reduce the side
effects of chemotherapy depending on starvation time. The current study was
conducted to survey the common side effects of the chemotherapeutic drugs and
the role of starvation to reduce them. The study included total 100 subjects
with multiple carcinomas. A comprehensive questionnaire about starvation
inquiry, chemotherapy side effects and their basic information was filled by
interviewers as told by patients. There were 48% patients with breast cancer
and 11% with uterine cancer. Out of these patients 30%, 28%, 9% and 9% patients
were agreed to starve for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively. The survey
regarding the side effects of chemotherapy showed that 43% patients were
suffering from headache, fatigue 90%, weakness 95%, hair loss 76%, nausea 77%,
vomiting 75%, diarrhea 31%, abdominal cramps 40%, mouth sores 47%, dry mouth
74%, memory impairment 14% and
numbness 49%. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Pakistan. Only 18% of
the total patients were agreed to starve for more than one day.
Chemotherapy-associated side effects vary greatly and it does not depend upon
cancer type. But these side effects depend on multiple factors such as the type
and dose of chemotherapeutic drug, patient’s health status and stage of cancer.
Cite this paper
Aslam, M. , Naveed, S. , Ahmed, A. , Abbas, Z. , Gull, I. and Athar, M. (2014) Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients and Evaluation of Patients Opinion about Starvation Based Differential Chemotherapy. Journal of Cancer Therapy
, 817-822. doi: 10.4236/jct.2014.58089
 Javed, S., Ali, M., Sadia, S., Aslam, M.A., Masood, A.I., Shaikh, R.S. and Sayyed, A.H. (2011) Combined Effect of Menopause Age and Genotype on Occurrence of Breast Cancer Risk in Pakistani Population. Maturitas, 69, 377-382.
 Khokher, S., Qureshi, W., Mahmood, S., Saleem, A. and Mahmud, S. (2011) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices of Women for Breast Cancer in the Educational Institutions of Lahore, Pakistan. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12, 2419-2424.
 Liede, A., Malik, I.A., Aziz, Z., De Los Rios, P., Kwan, E. and Narod, S.A. (2002) Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations to Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Pakistan. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 595-606.
 Chabner, B.A. and Roberts Jr., T.G. (2005) Timeline: Chemotherapy and the War on Cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer, 5, 65-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc1529
 Conklin, K.A. (2004) Chemotherapy-Associated Oxidative Stress: Impact on Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 3, 294-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735404270335
 Lee, C. and Longo, V.D. (2011) Fasting vs Dietary Restriction in Cellular Protection and Cancer Treatment. Oncogene, 30, 3305-3316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/onc.2011.91
 Chen, Y., Jungsuwadee, P., Vore, M., Butterfield, D.A. and St Clair, D.K. (2007) Collateral Damage in Cancer Chemotherapy: Oxidative Stress in Nontargeted Tissues. Molecular Interventions, 7, 147-156.
 Links, M. and Lewis, C. (1999) Chemoprotectants: A Review of Their Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Efficacy. Drugs, 57, 293-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199957030-00003
 Raffaghello, L., Lee, C., Safdie, F.M., Wei, M., Madia, F., Bianchi, G., et al. (2008) Starvation-Dependent Differential Stress Resistance Protects Normal but Not Cancer Cells against High-Dose Chemotherapy. The National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 3305-3316.
 Tannenbaum, A. (1945) The Dependence of Tumor Formation on the Composition of the Calorie-Restricted Diet as Well as on the Degree of Restriction. Cancer Research, 5, 616-625.
 Hursting, S.D., Perkins, S.N. and Phang, J.M. (1945) Calorie Restriction Delays Spontaneous Tumorigenesis in p53-Knockout Transgenic Mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 91, 7036-7040.
 Lee, C., Raffaghello, L., Brandhorst, S., Safdie, F.M., Bianchi, G., Montalvo, A.M., et al. (2012) Fasting Cycles Retard Growth of Tumors and Sensitize a Range of Cancer Cell Types to Chemotherapy. Science Translational Medicine, 4, 124-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003293
 Safdie, F.M., Dorff, T., Quinn, D., Fontana, L., Wei, M., Lee, C., et al. (2009) Fasting and Cancer Treatment in Humans: A Case Series Report. Aging, 1, 988-1007.
 Longo, V.D., Ellerby L.M., Bredesen, D.E., Valentine, J.S. and Gralla, E.B. (1997) Human Bcl-2 Reverses Survival Defects in Yeast Lacking Superoxide Dismutase and Delays Death of Wild-Type Yeast. The Journal of Cell Biology, 137, 1581-1588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.137.7.1581
 Longo, V.D. and Fontana, L. (2010) Calorie Restriction and Cancer Prevention: Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 31, 89-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2009.11.004