OJGen  Vol.4 No.4 , July 2014
Phylogenetic Position of North Sulawesi Tarsius sp. Based on Partial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences
ABSTRACT

Cyt b gene of North Sulawesi Tarsius sp., T. tumpara, T. sangirensis and T. tarsier (T. spectrum) had been partially sequenced. The homologous sequence of three groups had been compared to describe the phylogenetic position among them, as well as several other species accessed from the Genbank. Total DNA extracted from the muscular tissue had been obtained through tail cut sampling using the innuPREP DNA micro kit, and amplified using a pair of universal primer, L14841 and H15149. The size of the cyt b gene sequence amplified was 307 bp long. Sequence aligned using CLUSTAL-X program and diversity analysis were done using version 5.2.2. MEGA5 program. Genetic distance had been calculated by Tamura 3 parameter method and phylogenetic tree had been built using Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods. Genetic distance based on cyt b gene nucleotide was found from 0 to 0.240 with an average of 0.080. The phylogenetic tree constructed by Neighbor Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods indicated that T. tarsier, T. sangirensis and T. tumpara were closely related with Tarsius tarsier-complex, and distantly related with Cephalopachus bancanus and Carlito syrichta. The genetic distance and the phylogenetic tree had been constructed on the base of partial cyt b gene sequence of T. tarsier, T. sangirensis, T. tumpara and 5 other tarsier species and their accession. Those results are consistent with taxonomy based on morphology and vocal acoustic form.


Cite this paper
Kamagi, D. , Corebima, A. and Rengkuan, M. (2014) Phylogenetic Position of North Sulawesi Tarsius sp. Based on Partial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences. Open Journal of Genetics, 4, 332-341. doi: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.44030.
References
[1]   Hall, R. (2001) Cenezoic Recostructions of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: Changing Patterns of Land and Sea. In: Metcale, I., Smith, J.M.B., Morwood, M. and Davidson, I.D., Eds., Faunal and Floral migration in SE Asia-Australia, A. A. Balkema (Swets and Zietlinger Publishers), Lisse, 35-36.

[2]   Shekelle, M. and Leksono, S.M. (2004) Strategi Konservasi di Pulau Sulawesi dengan Menggunakan Tarsius Sebagai Flagship Spesies. Biota, IX, 1-10.

[3]   Wilson, K.A., McBride, M.F., Bodel, M. and Possingham, H.P. (2006) Prioritizing Global Conservation Efforts. Nature, 440, 337-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04366

[4]   Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A. and Mittermeier, C.G. (2000) Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35002501

[5]   Evans, B.J., Supriatna, J., Andayani, J.N., Setiadi, M.I., Cannatella, D.C. and Melnick, D.J. (2003) Monkeys and Toads Define Areas of Endemism on Sulawesi. Evolution, 57,1436-1443.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00350.x

[6]   Hill, W.C.O. (1955) Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. II. Haplorhini: Tarsiidea. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

[7]   Brandon-Jones, D., Eudey, A.A., Geissmann, T., Groves, C.P., Melnick, D.J., Morales, J.C., Shekelle, M. and Stewart, C.B. (2004) Asian Primate Classification. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 97-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014647.18720.32

[8]   Groves, C. and Shekelle, M. (2010) Genera and Spesies of Tarsiidae. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 1071-1082.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9443-1

[9]   Shekelle, M., Meier, R., Wahyu, I., Wirdateti and Ting, N. (2010) Molecular Phylogenetics and Chronometrics of Tarsiidae Based on 12S mtDNA Haplotypes: Evidence for Miocene Origins of Crown Tarsiers and Numerous Species within the Sulawesian Clade. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 1083-1106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9457-8

[10]   Avise, J.C., Lansman, R.A. and Shade, R.O. (1979) Use Endonuclease to Measure Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Relatedness in Natural Population. I. Population Structure and Evolution in Genus Peromyscus. Genetics, 92, 279-295.

[11]   Brown, W.M., Prager, E.M., Wang, A. and Wilson, A.C. (1982) Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of Primates: Tempo and Mode of Evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 18, 225-239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01734101

[12]   Moritz, C., Dowling, T.E. and Brown, W.M. (1987) Evolution of Animal Mitochondrial DNA. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18, 269-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001413

[13]   Zubaidah, S. (2011) Integrasi Pendekatan Morfologi dan Molekuler DNA (Deoksibonucleic Acid) Dalam Taksonomi. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar Dalam Bidang Genetika Pada FMIPA, Universitas Negeri Malang.

[14]   Master, J.C., Boniotto, M., Crovella, S., Roos, C., Pozzi, L. and Delpero, M. (2007) Phylogenetic Relationships among the Lorisoidea as Indicates by Craniodental Morphology and Mitochondrial Sequence Data. American Journal of Primatology, 69, 6-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20322

[15]   Randi, E. (1996) A Mitochondrial Cytochrome Phylogeny of the Alectoris partridges. Journal of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 6, 34-41.

[16]   Roos, C., Nadler, T. and Walter, L. (2008) Mitochondrial Phylogeny, Taxonomy and Biogeography of Silver Langur Spesies Group (Trachypithecus cristatus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 629-636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.03.006

[17]   Lim, L.S., Ang, K.C., Mahani, M.C., Shahrom, A.W. and Md-Zain, B.M. (2010) Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism and Phylogenetic Relationships of Proto Malays in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10, 71-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2010.71.83

[18]   Karanth, K.P., Lalji, S., Collura, R.V. and Beth, S.C. (2008) Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of Langurs and Leaf Monkey of South Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46, 683-694.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.026

[19]   Matsui, A., Rakotondraparany, F., Munechika, I., Hasegawa, M. and Horai, S. (2009) Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Prosimians Based on Complete Sequences of Mitocondrial DNAs. Gene, 441, 53-66.

[20]   Schmitz, J., Ohme, M. and Zischler, H. (2002) The Complete Mitochondrial Sequence of Tarsius bancanus: Evidence for an Extensive Nucleotide Compositional Plasticity of Primate Mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19, 544-553.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004110

[21]   Merker, S., Driller, C., Dahruddin, H., Wirdateti, Sinaga, W., Farajallah, D.P. and Shekelle, M. (2010) Tarsius wallacei: A New Tarsier Species from Central Sulawesi Occupies a Discontinuous Range. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 1107-1122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9452-0

[22]   Driller, C., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Zischler, H. and Merker, S. (2009) The Social System of Lariang Tarsiers (Tarsius lariang) as Revealed by Genetic Analysis. International Journal of Primatology, 30, 267-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-009-9341-6

[23]   Merker, S., Driller, C., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Pamungkas, J. and Zischler, H. (2009) Elucidating Geological and Biological Processes Underlying the Diversification of Sulawesi Tarsiers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 8459-8464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0900319106

[24]   Farias, I.P., Orti, G., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H. and Meyer, A. (2001) The Cytochrome b Gene as a Phylogenetic Marker: The Limits of Resolution for Analyzing Relationships among Cichlid Fishes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 53, 89-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002390010197 PMid:11479680

[25]   Widayanti, R., Solihin, D.D., Sajuthi, D. and Dyah Perwitasari, R.R. (2004) Kajian Penanda Genetik Gen Cytochrome B Pada Tarsius sp. Jurnal Sain Veteriner, 24, 1-8.

[26]   Md-Zain, B.M., Lee, S.J., Lakim, M., Ampeng, A. and Mahani, M.C. (2010) Phylogenetic Position of Tarsius Bancanus Based on Partial Cytochrome b DNA Sequences. Journal of Biological Science, 10, 348-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2010.348.354

[27]   Kocher, T.D., Thomas, W.K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S.V., Paabo, S., Villablanca, F.X. and Wilson, A.C. (1989) Dynamics of Mitokondrial DNA Evolution in Animals: Amplification and Sequencing with Conserved Primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 6196-6200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.86.16.6196

[28]   Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmough, F. and Higgins, D.G. (1997) The Clustal-X Window Interface: Flexible Strategies for Multiple Sequences Alignment Aided by Quality Analysis Tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 4876-4882.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.24.4876

[29]   Saitou, N. and Nei, M. (1987) The Neighbor-Joining Method: A New Method for Reconstructing Phylogenetic Trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406-425.

[30]   Felsenstein, J. (1981) Evolutionary Trees from dna Sequences: A Maximum Likelihood Approach. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 17, 368-376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01734359

[31]   Musser, G.G. and Dagosto, M. (1987) The Identity of Tarsius Pumilus, a Pygmy Species Endemic to the Montane Mossy Forests of Central Sulawesi. American Museum Novitates, 2867, 1-53.

[32]   Shekelle, M., Groves, C., Merker, S. and Supriatna, J. (2008) Tarsius tumpara: A New Tarsier Spesies from Siau Island, North Sulawesi. Primata Conservation, 23, 55-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1896/052.023.0106

[33]   Shekelle, M. (2008) Distribution of Tarsiers Acoustic Forms, North and Central Sulawesi: With Notes on The Primary Taxonomy of Sulawesi’s Tarsiers. Primates of The Oriental Night, CBCS-UI, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, University of Indonesia, Depok, 35-50.

[34]   Burton, J.A. and Nietsch, A. (2010) Geographical Variation in Duet Songs of Sulawesi Tarsiers: Evidence for New Cryptic Species in South and Southeast Sulawesi. International Journal of Primatology, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010.

 
 
Top