WJNS  Vol.4 No.4 , August 2014
Effects of Nigella sativa Seed Extract on Perphenzine-Induced Muscle Rigidity in Male Mice

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related, including: shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Rigidity is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased muscle tone, an excessive and continuous contraction of muscles. Effects of different herbal preparations have been evaluated on muscle rigidity so far and some of them are approved in clinic. In the present research, the effects of Nigella sativa hydroalcoholic seed extract on muscle stiffness in perphenazine-induced muscle rigidity were evaluated in adult male mice. In this experimental study, L-dopa 10 mg/kg, Nigella sativa hydroalcoholic seed extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to male Balb/c mice for 12 days. Control group only received water. Muscle rigidity scores were then measured and compared. The muscle rigidity score in group receiving extract at 50 mg/kg had no significant difference with control group but at 100 mg/kg it had been significantly improved starting at the 40th minute. The extract at 200 mg/kg had significant difference in all times measured in comparison with control group that also showed lower scores compared to L-dopa treated group. According to the obtained results in this study, it can be concluded that Nigella sativa hydroalcoholic extract has good effects on muscle rigidity in dose-dependent pattern.

Cite this paper
Jahromy, M. , Jalili, M. , Mohajer, A. , Poor, F. and Dara, S. (2014) Effects of Nigella sativa Seed Extract on Perphenzine-Induced Muscle Rigidity in Male Mice. World Journal of Neuroscience, 4, 313-318. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2014.44035.
[1]   Khan, M.A. (1999) Chemical Composition and Medicinal Properties of Nigella sativa Linn. InflammoPharmacology, 7, 15-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-999-0023-y

[2]   Salem, M.L. (2005) Immunomodulatory and Therapeutic Properties of the Nigella sativa L. Seed. International Immunopharmacology, 5, 1749-1770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2005.06.008

[3]   El-Tahir, K.E.D.H. and Bakeet, D.M. (2006) The Black Seed Nigella sativa Linnaeus—A Mine for Multi Cures: A Plea for Urgent Clinical Evaluation of Its Volatile Oil. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 1, 1-19.

[4]   Goreja, W.G. (2003) Black Seed: Nature’s Miracle Remedy. Amazing Herbs Press, New York.

[5]   Ashraf, S.S., Rao, M.V., Kaneez, F.S., et al. (2011) Nigella sativa Extract as a Potent Antioxidant for PetrochemicalInduced Oxidative Stress. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 49, 321-326.

[6]   Kanter, M. (2008) Nigella sativa and Derived Thymoquinone Prevents Hippocampal Neurodegeneration after Chronic Toluene Exposure in Rats. Neurochemical Research, 33, 579-588.

[7]   Hosseini, M., Zakeri, S., Khoshdast, S., et al. (2012) The Effects of Nigella sativa Hydro-Alcoholic Extract and Thymoquinone on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depression like Behavior in Rats. Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 4, 219-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.99052

[8]   Radad, K., Moldzio, R., Taha, M., et al. (2009) Thymoquinone Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against MPP+ and Rotenone. Phytotherapy Research, 23, 696-700.

[9]   Marras, C. and Tanner, C.M. (2004) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease. In: Watts, R.L. and Koller, W.C., Eds., Movement Disorders: Neurologic Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 177.

[10]   Lang, A.E. and Lozano, A.M. (1998) Parkinson’s Disease. First of Two Parts. The New England Journal of Medicine, 339, 1044-1053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199810083391506

[11]   Van Den Eeden, S.K., Tanner, C.M., Bernstein, A.L., et al. (2003) Incidence of Parkinson’s Disease: Variation by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 1015-1022.

[12]   Gelb, D.J., Oliver, E. and Gilman, S. (1999) Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson Disease. Archives of Neurology, 56, 33-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.56.1.33

[13]   Ward, C.D. and Gibb, W.R. (1990) Research Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson’s Disease. Archives of Neurology, 53, 245.

[14]   Olanow, C.W., Watts, R.L. and Koller, W.C. (2001) An Algorithm (Decision Tree) for the Management of Parkinson’s Disease (2001): Treatment Guidelines. Neurology, 56, S1.

[15]   Fahn, S. (1992) A Pilot Trial of High-Dose Alpha-Tocopherol and Ascorbate in Early Parkinson’s Disease. Annals of Neurology, 32, S128-S132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410320722

[16]   Butt, M.S. and Sultan, M.T. (2010) Nigellasativa: Reduces the Risk of Various Maladies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50, 654-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408390902768797