Background: A cross
sectional comparative study was conducted in a well populated city named
Rawalpindi, which is located in the Northern part of Pakistan. Objectives: This
study was aimed to document the comparison of menopausal-related symptoms among
educated and non educated women of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: MRS was used
to measure the intensity of menopausal symptoms. 100 educated and 100 uneducated
women were selected for study purpose. Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences,
Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital were selected as a study
setting. Findings: Correlation & Fisher exact test was applied for
statistical analysis. The intensity of symptoms reported by Educated women as:
sleeping problems (93.0%); heart discomfort (80.0%); hot flushes and sweating
(70.0%); joint and muscular pain (52.0); depressive mood (63.0%); irritability
(42%); anxiety (60.0%). physical and mental exhaustion; (48.0%); sexual problem
(61.0%); dryness of vagina (57.0%); and bladder problem (65.0%). The severity
of symptoms in uneducated women; sleeping problems (77.0%); heart discomfort
(73.0%); hot flushes (69.0%); joint and muscular pain (66.0); depressive mood
(71.0%); irritability (58%); anxiety (80.0%). physical and mental exhaustion
(70.0%); sexual problem (66.0%); dryness of vagina (70.0%); and bladder problem
(83.0%). Conclusions: Somatic symptoms were high in educated women as compare
to uneducated women while the prevalence of psychological and Urogenital
symptoms were high in uneducated women as compare to educated women.
Cite this paper
Batool, S. , Saggu, Y. and Ghani, M. (2014) Perception of Menopausal Symptoms among Educated versus Non Educated Women by Using Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS). Open Journal of Nursing
, 602-607. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2014.48063
 Forouhari, S., Khajehei, M., Moattari, M., Mohit, M., Rad, S.M. and Ghaem, H. (2010) The Effect of Education and Awareness on the Quality of life in Postmenopausal Women. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 35, 109-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.62563
 Mishra, D.G., Cooper, R. and Kuh, D. (2010) A Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health: Theory and Methods MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing. Maturitas, 65, 92-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.62563
 Burnett, S., Thompson, S., Bird, G. and Blakemore, J.S. Pubertal Development of the Understanding of Social Emotions: Implications for Education. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 681-689.
 Uskul, A.K. (2004) Women’s Menarche Stories from a Multicultural Sample. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 667-679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.11.031
 Campbell, A. (2008) Attachment, Aggression and Affiliation: The Role of Oxytocin in Female Social Behavior. Biological Psychology, 77, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.001
 Peter, C., Aguirre, W., Hidalgo, L. and Fayad, L. (2007) Assessing Menopausal Symptoms among Healthy Middle Aged Women with the Menopause Rating Scale. Maturitas, 57, 271-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2007.01.009
 Kakkar, V., Kaur, D., Chopra, K., Kaur, A. and Kau, I.P. (2007) Assessment of the Variation in Menopausal Symptoms with Age, Education and Working/Non-Working Status in North-Indian Sub Population Using Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Maturitas, 57, 306-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2007.02.026
 U S Census Bureau—World POPClock Projection http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html
 Yahya, S. and Rehan, N. (2002) Age, Pattern and Symptoms of Menopause among Rural Women of Lahore. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 9-12.
 Greendale, G.A., Lee, N.P. and Arriola, E.R. (1999) The Menopause Lancet. 1999; 353: 571-580.
 Hill, K. (1996) The Demography of Menopause. Maturitas, 23, 113-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-5122(95)00968-X
 World Health Organization Scientific Group: World Health Organization Research on the Menopause in the 1990s: Report of a. Technical Report Series. World Health Organization. 1996, (866): 14-16.
 Wulf, H. (1997) Utian’ Menopause—A Modern Perspective from a Controversial History. Maturitas, 29, 73-82.
 Moe, K.E. (2004) Hot Flashes and Sleep in Women. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 8, 487-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2004.07.005
 Ho, S.C., Chan, S.G., Yip, Y.B., Cheng, A., Yi, Q. and Chan, C. (1999) Menopausal Symptoms and Symptom Clustering in Chinese Women. Maturitas, 33, 219-227.
 Monterrosa, A., Blumel, J.E. and Chedraui, P. (2008) Increased Menopausal Symptoms among Afro-Colombian Women as Assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale. Maturitas, 59, 182-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2007.12.002
 Karacan, S. (2010) Effects of Long-Term Aerobic Exercise on Physical Fitness and Postmenopausal Symptoms with Menopausal Rating Scale. Science & Sports, 25, 39-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2009.07.004
 Green, J.G. (1998) Construction a Standard Climacteric Scale. Maturitas, 29, 19-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5122(98)00024-3
 Heinemann, L.A.J., Potthoff, P. and Schneider, H.P. (2003) International Version of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-1-28
 Qazi, A.R. (2006) Age, Pattern of Menopause, Climacteric Symptoms and Associated Problem among Urban Population of Hyderabad Pakistan. JCPSP, 16, 700-703.
 Jamelle, R.N. (1996) Awareness of Menopause and Pattern of Menopausal Symptoms in HRT Clinic. Pakistan Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 9, 16-18.