PSYCH  Vol.5 No.9 , July 2014
Technology-Assisted Addiction Treatment for Key Populations
ABSTRACT

Innovations in health information technology have resulted in patient-centered and provider-centered applications that can enhance access to care and treatment and retention in care. Provider-based applications in addiction treatment include the use of electronic medical records, electronic computer-based medication dispensing, and state prescription monitoring plans as well as new drug formulations and novel drug therapies in development. Patient-based applications include technology-based delivery of psychosocial interventions, as well as, cellphone-based messaging and applications. For key populations, men who have sex with men, sex workers, injection drug users and transgendered individuals, application of these technological innovations could enhance treatment outcomes for substance use disorders. Thus, as these technology innovations advance attention to their development for key populations would assist the global efforts to enhance addiction treatment.


Cite this paper
Kresina, T. , Lubran, R. & Clark, H. (2014). Technology-Assisted Addiction Treatment for Key Populations. Psychology, 5, 1044-1054. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.59117.
References
[1]   Abdala, N., Hasen, N. B., Toussova, O. V., Krasnoselskikh, T. V., Kozlov, A. P., & Heimer, R. (2012). Age at First Alcoholic Drink as a Predictor of Current HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Injection Drug Users (IDUs) and Non-IDUs Who Are Sexual Partners of IDUs, in St. Petersburg, Russia. AIDS Behavior, 16, 1597-1604.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-011-0013-0

[2]   Agyapong, V. I., Milnes, J., McLoughlin, D. M., & Farren, C. K. (2013) Perception of Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Depression About the Usefulness of Supportive Text Messages. Technology Health Care, 21, 31-39.

[3]   Altice, F. L., Kamarulzaman, A., Soriano, V. V., Schechter, M., & Friedland, G. H. (2010). Treatment of Medical, Psychiatric, and Substance-Use Comorbidities in People Infected With HIV Who Use Drugs. The Lancet, 376, 367-387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60829-X

[4]   Atreya, R. V., Sun, J., & Zhao, Z. (2013) Exploring Drug-Target Interaction Networks of Illicit Drugs. BMC Genomics, 14, S1-S9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-S4-S1

[5]   Azar, M. M., Springer, S. A., Meyer, J. P., & Altice, F. L. (2010). A Systematic Review of the Impact of Alcohol Use Disorders on HIV Treatment Outcomes, Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Heath Care Utilization. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112, 178-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.06.014

[6]   Bachireddy, C., Soule, M. C., Izenberg, J. M., Dvoryak, S., Dumchev, K., & Altice, F. L. (2014). Integration of Health Services Improves Multiple Healthcare Outcomes Among HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 134, 106-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.09.020

[7]   Barratt, M. J., Ferris, J. A., & Winstock, A. R. (2014). Use of Silk Road, the Online Drug Marketplace, in the UK, Australia and the USA. Addiction, 109, 774-783.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12470

[8]   Benotsch, E. G., Snipes, D. J., Martin, A. M., & Bull, S. S. (2013). Sexting, Substance Abuse, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 307-313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.011

[9]   Breyer, C. Sullivan, P. S., Sanchez, J., Dowdy, D., Altman, D., Trapence, G., Collins, C., Katabira, E., Kazatchkine, M., Sidibe, M., & Mayer, K. H. (2012). A Call to Action for Comprehensive HIV Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Lancet, 380, 424-438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61022-8

[10]   Cai, X., Whitfield, T., Hixon, M. S., Grant, Y., Koob, G. F., & Janda, K. D. (2013). Probing Active Cocaine Vaccination Performance Through Catalytic and Noncatalytic Hapten Design. Journal of Medical Chemistry, 56, 3701-3709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm400228w

[11]   Carrico, A. W., Pollack, L. M., Stall, R. D., Shade, S. B., Neilands, T. B., Rice, T. M., Woods, W. J., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2012). Psychological Processes and Stimulant Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, 79-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.020

[12]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Community-Based Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs Providing Naloxone-United States 2010. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61, 101-105.

[13]   Chen, Y., Li, X., Zhang, C., Hong, Y., Zhou, Y., & Liu, W. (2013). Alcohol Use and Sexual Risks: Use of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Among Female Sex Workers in China. Health Care of Women International, 34, 122-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2011.610535

[14]   Chersich, M. F., Luchters, S. M., Malonza, I. M., Mwarogo, P., King’ola, N., & Temmerman, M. (2007). Heavy Episodic Drinking Among Kenyan Female Sex Workers Is Associated With Unsafe Sex, Sexual Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 18, 764-769.

[15]   Chersich, M. F., Luchters, S., Ntaganira, I. Gerbase, A., Lo, Y. R., Scorgie, F., & Steen, R. (2013). Priority Interventions to Reduce HIV Transmission in Sex Work Settings in Sub-Saharan Africa and Delivery of These Services. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16, 17980.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.16.1.17980

[16]   Cisler, R. A., Silverman, B. L., Gromov, I., & Gastfriend, D. R. (2010). Impact of Treatment with Intramuscular, Injectable, Extended-Release Naltrexone on Counseling and Support Group Participation in Patients With Alcohol Dependence. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 4, 181-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181c82207

[17]   Clark, W. (2011). Strategic Initiative #6: Health Information Technology. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Leading Change: APlan for SAMHSA’s Roles and Actions 2011-2014, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville (MD), HHS Publication No. (SMA) 11-4629.

[18]   Cleary, B. J., Reynolds, K., Eogen, M., O’Connell, M. P., Fahey, T., Gallagher, P. J., Clarke, T., White, M. J., McDermott, C., O’Sullivan, A., Carmody, D., Gleeson, J., & Murphy, D. J. (2013). Methadone Dosing and Prescribed Medication Use in a Prospective Cohort of Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Women. Addiction, 108, 762-770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12078

[19]   Cordy, C., & Kelly, P. (2013) Patterns of Prescribing-the Rhode Island Prescription Monitoring Program. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 96, 36-37.

[20]   Dennison, L., Morrison, L., Conway, G., & Yardley, L. (2013). Opportunities and Challenges for Smartphone Applications in Supporting Health Behavior Change: Qualitative Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, e86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2583

[21]   Dmitrieva, E., Frolov, S. A., Kresina, T. F., & Slater, W. (2012). A Model for Retention and Continuity of Care and Treatment for Opioid Dependent Injection Drug Users in the Russian Federation. Health, 4, 457-463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2012.48073

[22]   Doe-Simkins, M., Walley, A. Y., Epstein, A., & Moyer, P. (2009). Saved by the Nose: Bystander-Administered Intranasal Naloxone Hydrochloride for Opioid Overdose. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 788-791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.146647

[23]   Drainoni, M. L., Farrell, C., Sorensen-Alawad, A, Palmisano, J. N., Chaisson, C., & Walley, A. Y. (2014). Patient Perspectives of an Integrated Program of Medical Care and Substance Use Treatment. AIDS Patient Care and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 11, 71-78.

[24]   DRX Systems. Automated Methadone Dispensing.
http://www.drxsystems.com/

[25]   El-Bassel, N., Shaw, S. A., Dasgupta, A. & Strathdee, S. A. (2014). Drug Use as a Driver of HIV Risks: Re-Emerging and Emerging Issues. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 9, 150-155.

[26]   Elkashef, A. Biswas, J., Acri, J. B., & Vocci, F. (2007). Biotechnology and the Treatment of Addictive Disorders: New Opportunities. BioDrugs, 21, 259-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00063030-200721040-00006

[27]   Fischer, B., Bibby, M., & Bouchard, M. (2010). The Global Diversion of Pharmaceutical Drugs Non-Medical Use and Diversion of Psychotropic Prescription Drugs in North America: A Review of Sourcing Routes and Control Measures. Addiction, 105, 2062-2070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03092.x

[28]   Ghitza, U. E., Gore-Langton, R. E., Lindblad, R., Shide, D., Subreamaniam, G., & Tai, B. (2013). Common Data Elements for Substance Use Disorders in Electronic Health Records: The NIDA Clinical Trials Network Experience. Addiction, 108, 3-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03876.x

[29]   Ghitza, U. E., Sparenborg, S., & Tai, B. (2011). Improving Drug Abuse Treatment Delivery through Adoption of Harmonized Electronic Health Record Systems. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 2, 125-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/SAR.S23030

[30]   Guichard, A., Guignard, R., Michels, D., Beck, F., Arwidson, P., Lert, F., & Roy, E. (2013). Changing Patterns of First Injection across Key Periods of the French Harm Reduction Policy: PrimInject, ACross Sectional Analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133, 254-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.026

[31]   Hailey, D., Roine, R., Ohinmaa, A., & Dennett, L. (2011). Evidence of Benefit from Telerehabilitation in Routine Care: A Systematic Review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 17, 281-287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/jtt.2011.101208

[32]   Hanson, C. L., Cannon, B., Burton, S., & Giraud-Carrier, C. (2013). An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse through Twitter. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, Article ID: e189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2741

[33]   Hewlett, L., & Wermeling, D. P. (2013). Survey of Naloxone Legal Status in Opioid Overdose Prevention and Treatment. Journal of Opioid Management, 9, 369-377.

[34]   Horvath, K. J., Carrico, A. W., Simony, J., Boyer, E. W., Amico, K. R., & Petroll, A. E. (2013). Engagement in HIV Medical Care and Technology Use among Stimulant-Using and Nonstimulant-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Research and Treatment, 2013, Article ID: 121352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/121352

[35]   International Telecommunications Union (2012). ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database. Statistical Highlights.
http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/

[36]   IVEK Corporation. Accuvert Controlled Methadone Dispensing System.
http://www.ivek.com/prod.control.subst.dispen.html

[37]   Kallander, K., Tibenderana, J. K., Akpogheneta, O. J., Strachan, D. L., Hill, Z., ten Asbroek, A. H., Conteh, L., Kirkwood, B. R., & Meek, S. R. (2013). Mobile Health (mHealth) Approaches and Lessons for Increased Performance and Retention of Community Health Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, Article ID: e17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2130

[38]   Khosropour, C. M., Johnson, B. A., Ricca, A. V., & Sullivan, P. S. (2013). Enhancing Retention of an Internet-Based Cohort Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) via Text Messaging: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, Article ID: e194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2756

[39]   Kiome, K. L., & Moeller, F. G. (2011). Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone for the Management of Patients with Opioid Dependence. Substance Abuse, 5, 1-9.

[40]   Kirsh, K., Peppin, J., & Coleman, J. (2012). Characterization of Prescription Opioid Abuse in the United States: Focus on the Route of Administration. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 26, 348-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15360288.2012.734905

[41]   Kosten, T., Domingo, C., Orson, F., & Kinsey, B. (2014). Vaccines against Stimulants: Cocaine and MA. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77, 368-374.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12115

[42]   Kresina, T. F., Litwin, A., Marion, I., Lubran, R., & Clark, H. W. (2009). Federal Government Oversight and Regulation of Medication Assisted Treatment for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence. Journal of Drug Policy Analysis, 2, 1-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1941-2851.1007

[43]   Kresina, T. F., & Lubran, R. (2011). Improving Public Health through the Implementation of Medication Assisted Treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8, 4102-4117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8104102

[44]   Kresina, T. F., Lubran, R., Clark, H. W., & Cheever, L. W. (2012). Mediation Assisted Treatment, HIV/AIDS and the Continuum of Response for People Who Inject Drugs. Advances in Preventive Medicine, 2012, Article ID: 541489.
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apm/2012/541489/

[45]   Laisaar, K. T., Uuskula, A., Sharma, A., DeHovitz, J. A., & Amico, K. R. (2013). Developing an Adherence Support Intervention for Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Context of the Recent IDU-Driven HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Estonia. AIDS Care, 25, 863-873.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2013.764393

[46]   Leggett, T. (1999). Crack, Sex Work and HIV. AIDS Analysis Africa, 9, 3-4.

[47]   Li, Y., Baker, J. J., Korostyshevskiy, V. R., Slack, R. S., & Plankey, M. W. (2012). The Association of Intimate Partner Violence, Recreational Drug Use with HIV Seroprevalence among MSM. AIDS and Behavior, 16, 491-498.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-012-0157-6

[48]   Loftis, J. M., & Huckans, M. (2013). Substance Use Disorders: Psychoneuroimmunological Mechanisms and New Targets for Therapy. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 139, 289-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.04.011

[49]   Luchters, S., Giebel, S., Syengo, M., Lango, D., King’ola, N., Temmerman, M., & Chersich, M. F. (2011). Use of AUDIT, and Measures of Drinking Frequency and Patterns to Detect Association between Alcohol and Sexual Behavior in Male Sex Workers in Kenya. BMC Public Health, 11, 384-390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-384

[50]   Mackey, T. K., & Liang, B. A. (2013). Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, Article ID: e105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2610

[51]   Mall, S., Sibeko, G., Temmingh, H., Stein, D. J., Milligan, P., & Lund, C. (2013). Using a Treatment Partner and Text Messaging to Improve Adherence to Psychotropic Medication: A Qualitative Formative Study of Service Users and Caregivers in Cape Town, South Africa. African Journal of Psychiatry (Johannesburg), 16, 364-370.

[52]   Marsch, L. A., Carroll, K. M., & Kiluk, B. D. (2013). Technology-Based Interventions for the Treatment and Recovery Management of Substance Use Disorders: A JSAT Special Issue. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46, 1-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2013.08.010

[53]   Marsch, L. A., & Dallery, J. (2012). Advances in the Psychosocial Treatment of Addiction. The Role of Technology in the Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatment. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 35, 481-493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2012.03.009

[54]   McClure, E. A., Acquavita, S. P., Harding, E., & Stitzer, M. L. (2013). Utilization of Communication Technology by Patients Enrolled in Substance Abuse Treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 129, 145-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.10.003

[55]   Medhi, G. K., Mahanta, J., Kermode, M., Paranjape, R. S., Adhikary, R., Phukan, S. K., & Ngully, P. (2012). Factors Associated with History of Drug Use among Female Sex Workers (FSW) in a High Prevalence State of India. BMC Public Health, 12, 273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-273

[56]   Muench, F., Weiss, R. A., Kuerbis, A., & Morgenstern, J. (2013). Developing a Theory Driven Text Messaging Intervention for Addiction Care with User Driven Content. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 27, 315-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029963

[57]   Needle, R., Kroeger, K., Belani, H., Achrekar, A., Parry, C. D., & Dewing, S. (2008). Sex, Drugs, and HIV: Rapid Assessment of HIV Risk Behaviors among Street-Based Drug Using Sex Workers in Durban, South Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 1447-1455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.031

[58]   Nemoto, T., Iwamoto, M., Sakata, M., Perngparn, U., & Areesantichai, C. (2012). Social and Cultural Contexts of HIV Risk Behaviors among Thai Female Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand. AIDS Care, 25, 613-618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2012.726336

[59]   Netsmart. Clinic Addiction Management Systems.
http://www.ntst.com/products/ams.asp

[60]   Newman, P. A., Lee, S. J., Roungprakhon, S., & Tepjan, S. (2012). Demographic and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Risk among Men and Transgender Women Recruited from Gay Entertainment Venues and Community-Based Organizations in Thailand: Implications for HIV Prevention. Prevention Science, 13, 483-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0275-4

[61]   Office of the National Drug Control Program (2013). National Drug Control Strategy 2013.
http://www.whitehouse.gov//sites/default/files/ondcp/policy-and-research/ndcs_2013.pdf

[62]   Parry, C. D., Petersen, P., Carney, T., Dewing, S., & Needle, R. (2008). Rapid Assessment of Drug Use and Sexual HIV Risk Patterns among Vulnerable Drug Using Populations in Cape Town, Durban and Pretoria, South Africa. SAHARA Journal, 5, 113-119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17290376.2008.9724909

[63]   Parry, C. D., Plüddemann, A., Louw, A., & Leggett, T. (2004). The 3-Metros Study of Drugs and Crime in South Africa: Findings and Policy Implications. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30, 167-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ADA-120029872

[64]   Raut, D. K., Pal, D., & Das, A. (2003). A Study of HIV/STD Infections amongst Commercial Sex Workers in Kolkata (India). Part II: Sexual Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude towards STD/HIV Infections. Journal of Communicable Diseases, 35, 182-187.

[65]   Reback, C. J., Grant, D. L., Fletcher, J. B., Branson, C. M., Shoptow, S., Bowers, J. R., Charania, M., & Mansergh, G. (2012). Text Messaging Reduces HIV Risk Behaviors among Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS and Behavior, 16, 1993-2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-012-0200-7

[66]   Rocha, L. E., Lileros, F., & Holme, P. (2010). Information Dynamics Shape the Sexual Networks of Internet-Mediated Prostitution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 5706-5711.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914080107

[67]   Ruetsch, C., Tkacz, J., McPherson, T. L., & Cacciola, J. (2012). The Effect of Telephonic Patient Support on Treatment for Opioid Dependence: Outcomes at One Year Follow-Up. Addiction Behavior, 37, 686-689.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.01.013

[68]   Russell, B. S., Eaton, L. A., & Petersen-Williams, P. (2013). Intersecting Epidemics Among Pregnant Women: Alcohol Use, Interpersonal Violence and HIV Infection in South Africa. Current HIV/AIDS Report, 10, 103-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-012-0145-5

[69]   Safika, I., Johnson, T. P., & Levy, J. A. (2011). A Venue Analysis of Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Sexual Intercourse among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia. International Journal of Drug Policy, 22, 49-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2010.09.003

[70]   SciLog, BioProcessing Systems. LabTec Smart Methadone Dispensing Pump.
http://scilog.com/applications/metering/methadone-dispensing

[71]   Shekelle, P. G., Morton, S. C., & Keeler, E. B. (2006). Costs and Benefits of Health Information Technology. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (Full Rep.), 1-71.

[72]   Siegler, A., Tuazon, E., Bradley O’Brian, D., & Paone, D. (2013). Unintentional Opioid Overdose Deaths in New York City, 2005-2010: A Place-Based Approach to Reduce Risk. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25, 569-574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.10.015

[73]   Smyrnov, P., Broadhead, R. S., Datsenko, O., & Matiyash, O. (2012). Rejuvenating Harm Reduction Projects for Injection Drug Users: Ukraine’s Nationwide Introduction of Peer-Driven Interventions. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23, 141-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2012.01.001

[74]   Stroumsa, D. (2014). The State of Transgender Health Care: Policy, Law and Medical Frameworks. American Journal of Public Health, 104, e31-e38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301789

[75]   Strauss, M. M., Ghitza, U. E., & Tai, B. (2013). Preventing Deaths From Opioid Overdose in the US—The Promise of Naloxone Antidote in Community-Based Naloxone Take-Home Programs. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 2013.

[76]   Syed, Y. Y., & Keating, G. M. (2013). Extended-Release Intramuscular Naltrexone (VIVITROL®): A Review of Its Use in the Prevention of Relapse to Opioid Dependence in Detoxified Patients. CNS Drugs, 27, 851-861.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-013-0110-x

[77]   Taran, Y. S., Johnston, L. G., Pohorila, N. B., & Saliuk, T. O. (2011). Correlates of HIV Risk among Injecting Drug Users in Sixteen Ukrainian Cities. AIDS and Behavior, 15, 65-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9817-6

[78]   Walley, A. Y., Cheng, D. M., Pierce, C. E., Chen, C., Filippell, T., Samet, J. H., & Alford, D. P. (2012). Methadone Dose, Take Home Status, and Hospital Admission among Methadone Maintenance Patients. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 6, 186-190.

[79]   Wang, H., Brown, K. S., Wang, G., Ding, G., Zang, C., Wang, J., Reilly, K. H., Chen, H., & Wang, N. (2011). Knowledge of HIV Seropositivity Is a Predictor for Illicit Drug Use: Incidence of Drug Use Initiation among Female Sex Workers in a High HIV-Prevalence Area of China. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117, 226-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.02.006

[80]   Weber, J. M., Tataris, K. L., Hoffman, J. D., Aks, S. E., & Mycyk, M. B. (2012). Can Nebulized Naloxone Be Used Safely and Effectively by Emergency Medical Services for Suspected Opioid Overdose? Prehospital Emergency Care, 16, 289-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10903127.2011.640763

[81]   Wechsberg, W. M., Wu, L. T., Zule, W. A., Parry, C. D., Browne, F. A., Luseno, W. K., Kline, T., & Gentry, A. (2009). Substance Abuse, Treatment Needs and Access among Female Sex Workers and Non-Sex Workers in Pretoria, South Africa. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 4, 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1747-597X-4-11

[82]   Wei, C., Guadamuz, T. E., Lim, S. H., Huang, Y., & Koe, S. (2012). Pattern and Level of Illicit Drug Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Asia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 120, 246-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.07.016

[83]   Weiner, S. G., Griggs, C. A., Mitchell, P. M., Langlois, B. K., Friedman, F. D., Moore, R. L., Lin, S. C., Nelson, K. P., & Feldman, J. A. (2013). Clinical Impression versus Prescription Monitoring Program Criteria in the Assessment of Drug-Seeking Behavior in the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 62, 281-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.05.025

[84]   Wermeling, D. P. (2013). A Response to the Opioid Overdose Epidemic: Naloxone Nasal Spray. Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 3, 63-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-012-0092-0

[85]   Young, S. D., & Shoptaw, S. (2013). Stimulant Use among African American and Latino MSM Social Network Users. Journal of Addictive Disorders, 32, 39-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2012.759859

 
 
Top