NS  Vol.6 No.11 , July 2014
The Chemical State of a Silver-Copper Complex Image Formed during the Electroless Copper Deposition
Abstract: By means of electroless copper deposition method a complex image has been fabricated in a mixture of cupric sulphate and formaldehyde, the surface and subsurface properties of which has been studied in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with sputter depth profiling technique analyzing distribution and chemical state of copper and silver. Depth profiling by XPS in conjunction with Ar+ sputtering shows that the catalytic activity of silver persists, catalyzing reduction of copper. The integral areas of spectra Ag3d after electroless copper deposition for 5 min at different sputtering times demonstrate that the amount of silver at the surface is greater than that in the interior. And then, the quite likely reasonable explanations are provided for the result. Additionally, the chemical shift of Ag3d XPS and deconvolution of Ag3d XPS spectrum have been also analyzed respectively at length.
Cite this paper: Zhang, Y. , Li, X. and Yang, Z. (2014) The Chemical State of a Silver-Copper Complex Image Formed during the Electroless Copper Deposition. Natural Science, 6, 852-858. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.611082.

[1]   Chandler, N. and Tyler, S.G. (1995) Ultra-Fine Feature Printed Circuits and Multi-Chip Modules. Microelectronics Journal, 26, 393-404.

[2]   Yu, A.A., Savas, T.A., Taylor, G.S., Guiseppe-Elie, A., Smith, H.I. and Stellacci, F. (2005) Supramolecular Nano-stamping: Using DNA as Movable Type. Nano Letters, 5, 1061-1064.

[3]   Geissler, M., Wolf, H., Stutz, R., Delamarche, E., Grummt, U.W., Michel, B. and Bietsch, A. (2003) Fabrication of Metal Nanowires Using Microcontact Printing. Langmuir, 19, 6301-6311.

[4]   Riedel, W. (1991) Electroless Nickel Plating. ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio.

[5]   Wang, T.C., Chen, B., Rubner, M.F. and Cohen, R.E. (2001) Selective Electroless Nickel Plating on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Platforms. Langmuir, 17, 6610-6615.

[6]   Bhuvana, T., Kumar, G.V.P., Kulkarni, G.U. and Narayana, C. (2007) Carbon Assisted Electroless Gold for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Studies. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111, 6700-6705.

[7]   Landolt, D. (2002) Electrodeposition Science and Technology in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 149, S9-S20.

[8]   Daoush, W.M., Lim, B.K., Mo, C.B., Nam, D.H. and Hong, S.H. (2009) Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Copper Nanocomposites Fabricated by Electroless Deposition Process. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 513-514, 247-253.

[9]   Andricacos, P.C., Uzoh, C, Dukovic, J.O., Horkans, J. and Deligianni, H. (1998) Damascene Copper Electroplating for Chip Interconnections. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 42, 567-574.

[10]   Bryant, R.A., Olm, M.T. and Fenton, D.E. (1995) Photographic Emulsions of Enhanced Sensitivity. US Patent No. 5728517.

[11]   Mydlarz Z.G., and Budz J.A. and Bell E.L. (1998) Digital Imaging with High-Chloride Silver Halide Emulsions. US Patent No. 5783373.

[12]   Shoesmith, D.W., Sunder, S., Bailey, M.G., Wallace, G.J. and Stanchell, F.W. (1983) Anodic Oxidation of Copper in Alkaline Solutions: Part IV. Nature of the Passivating Film. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 143, 153-165.

[13]   Yin, X., Hong, L. and Chen, B.H. (2004) Role of a Pb2+ Stabilizer in the Electroless Nickel Plating System: A Theoretical Exploration. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108, 10919-10929.

[14]   Chen, C.H., Chen, B.H. and Hong, L. (2006) Role of Cu2+ as an Additive in an Electroless Nickel-Phosphorus Plating System: A Stabilizer or a Codeposit? Chemistry of Materials, 18, 2959-2968.

[15]   Hawn, D.D. and De-Koven, B.M. (1987) Deconvolution as a Correction for Photoelectron Inelastic Energy Losses in the Core Level XPS Spectra of Iron Oxides. Surface and Interface Analysis, 10, 63-74.