Edoardo Bassini is considered the father of modern surgery. His early results revealed a 2.7% recurrence rate. Earl Shouldice, his true successor, has improved the results to less than 1%. These results were produced by several well-known surgeons from 1970-2000 and well published. The need for mesh was meant for a small segment of the surgical patient population. What has happened? Generally, recurrence rates with mesh have not come down; instead, pain has become the bane of hernia repair as we begin the 21st century. A pain which makes the patient wish that he had a recurrence instead!
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 Meumayer, L., Giobbie-Hurder, A., Jonasson, O. and Fittzgibbons Jr., R. (2004) Open Mesh versus Laparoscopic Mesh Repair of Inguinal Hernia. NEJM, 350, 1819-1827.
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 Nienhuijs, S.W., Boelens, O. and Strobbe, L.J.A. (2005) Pain after Anterior Mesh Repair. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 200, 885-889.
 Wright, R.C. and Sanders, E. (2011) Inguinal Neuritis Is Common in Primary Inguinal Hernia. Hernia, 15, 393-398.
 Simons, M.P., Aufenacker, T., Bay-Nielsen, M., et al. (2009) European Hernia Society Guidelines on the Treatment of Inguinal Hernia in Adult Patients. Hernia, 13, 343-403.