OJOG  Vol.4 No.10 , July 2014
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in Pregnancy: Knowledge and Practice of Care Providers in Nigeria
ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the practice of obstetric care providers regarding routine screening for hepatitis B virus infection, and to assess their knowledge of the management of the positive pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of obstetric care providers in southwestern Nigeria. Mean and standard deviation was used to summarize continuous variables while frequency and percentage was used for categorical variables. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square test and Fisher’s exact tests as appropriate; while continuous variables were compared using the t-test. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Scoring of the outcome variables for knowledge was done, and the score categorized into good and poor knowledge, depending on if the respondent scored above or below the mean score. Results: Three hundred and eighty-one (67.4%) of the care givers routinely screen pregnant women for the serum marker (HBSAg) of HBV infection. Two hundred and seventy-four (48.5%) of the respondents had good knowledge score of the management of HBV infection in pregnancy. Routine screening for HBV infection was significantly associated with age (p = 0.002), years of practice (p < 0.001), specialty (p = 0.001) and professional cadre (p < 0.001), while knowledge was significantly associated with age (p = 0.012), years of practice (p = 0.003), specialty (p = 0.047) and types of practice (p = 0.014). Conclusion: Screening for HBV infection in pregnant women is not universal in southwestern Nigeria, and the care providers have poor knowledge of the management of the positive mothers.


Cite this paper
Adeyemi, A. , Afolabi, A. and Adeomi, A. (2014) Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in Pregnancy: Knowledge and Practice of Care Providers in Nigeria. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 621-627. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2014.410086.
References
[1]   Aganga-Williams, O.M., Akanmu, A.S., Akinsete, I. and Njoku, O.S. (1999) Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Women of Childbearing Age in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 3, 45-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3583228

[2]   Soods, S. and Malranker, S. (2010) Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, Antigen to The hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in a Hospital-Based Population in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 1, 165-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.62588

[3]   Cacciola, I., Cerenzia, G., Pollicino, T., et al. (2002) Genomic Heterogeneity of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Outcome of Perinatal HBV Infection. Journal of Hepatology, 36, 426-432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(01)00295-1

[4]   Kao, J.H. and Chen, D.S. (2002) Global Control of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2, 395-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00315-8

[5]   Ugwuja, E.I. (2010)Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Liver Function Tests among Adolescents in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine, 6, 1-6.

[6]   Hadler, S.C. and Margolis, H.S. (1989) Viral Hepatitis. In: Evans, A.S., Ed., Viral Infections of Humans, Epidemiology and Control, 3rd Edition, Plenum Medical Book Company, New York, 361-699.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0705-1_13

[7]   Stevens, C.E., Neuroth, R.A., Beasley, R.P. and Szimuness, W. (1979) HBeAg and anti-HBe Detection by Radioimmunoassay: Correlation of Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in Taiwan. Journal of Medical Virology, 3, 237-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.1890030310

[8]   Joshi, N. and Kumar, A. (2001) Immunoprophylaxis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 19, 172-183.

[9]   CDC (1991) Hepatitis B Virus: A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy for Eliminating Transmission in the United States through Universal Childhood Vaccination: Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 40, 1-19.

[10]   World Health Organization (1998) Progress in the Control of Viral Hepatitis: Recommendation from a WHO Meeting. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 66, 443-455.

[11]   Adebamowo, C.A., Odukogbe, A.A. and Ajuwon, A.J. (1998) Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Nigerian Obstetricians and Midwives. Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology, 18, 528-532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443619866255

[12]   WHO (2013) Global Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States. Chapter 3, 23.

[13]   Institute of Medicine, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer (2010)A National Strategy for Prevention for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.

[14]   Apuzzio, J., Block, J.M., Cullison, S., et al. (2012) Chronic Hepatitis B in Pregnancy: A Workshop Consensus Statement on Screening, Evaluation, and Management Part 1. The Female Patient, 37, 22-27.

[15]   Mast, E.E., Margolis, H.S., Fiore, A.E., et al. (2006) A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States; Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents. MMWR—Recommendations and Reports, 54, 1-31.

[16]   Gambarin-Gelwa, M. (2007) Hepatitis B in Pregnancy. Clinics in Liver Disease, 11, 945-963.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cld.2007.08.004

[17]   Lok, A.S. and McMahon, B.J. (2009) Chronic Hepatitis B: Update 2009. Hepatology, 50, 661-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.23190

 
 
Top