AE  Vol.2 No.3 , July 2014
Analysis of the Hypervariable Regions (HVRs) of the wsp Gene of Wolbachia from Solenopsis invicta Ants in Southeastern Brazil
ABSTRACT
Wolbachia is a bacterium that infects many arthropods with horizontal or vertical transmission. The introduction and spreading of Solenopsis invicta in new areas may have influenced the acquisition of Wolbachia as this ant species spread from its South America origin to other parts of the globe. The wsp gene of Wolbachia was analyzed using the WSP Typing and a similarity analysis was conducted to analyse the sharing of the symbiont among nests of S. invicta ants. The analyses revealed the presence of two groups of Wolbachia: strain A belonging to InvA S. invicta subgroup, and the strain B belonging to Acromyrmex insinuator. The wsp gene and its hypervariable regions are shared among the Wolbachia present in different types of ants inhabiting in the New World. Wolbachia strains found in the nests of S. invicta are ant-specialist symbionts which may have spread by several means among the ant population.

Cite this paper
Souza, R. , Martins, C. , Pereira, R. and Bueno, O. (2014) Analysis of the Hypervariable Regions (HVRs) of the wsp Gene of Wolbachia from Solenopsis invicta Ants in Southeastern Brazil. Advances in Entomology, 2, 135-143. doi: 10.4236/ae.2014.23021.
References
[1]   Hilgenboecker, K., Hammerstein, P., Schlattmann, P., Telschow, A. and Werren, J.H. (2008) How Many Species Are Infected with Wolbachia? A Statistical Analysis of Current Data. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 281, 215-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01110.x

[2]   Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J.A.J. and Hurst, G.D.D. (1999) Wolbachia Pipientis: Microbial Manipulator of Arthropod Reproduction. Annual Review of Microbiology, 53, 71-102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.71

[3]   Tram, U. and Sullivan, W. (2002) Role of Delayed Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Mitosis in Wolbachia Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility. Science, 296, 1124-1126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1070536

[4]   Lo, N., Paraskevoupoulos, C., Bourtzis, K., O’Neill, S.L., Werren, J.H., Bordenstein, S.R. and Bandi, C. (2007) Taxonomic Status of the Intracellular Bacterium Wolbachia Pipientis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 57, 654-657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.64515-0

[5]   Werren, J.H. (1997) Biology of Wolbachia. Annual Reviews of Entomology, 42, 537-609.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.587

[6]   Dedeine, F., Ahrens, M., Calcaterra, L. and Shoemaker, D.D. (2005) Social Parasitism in Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.): A Potential Mechanism for Interspecies Transfer of Wolbachia. Molecular Ecology, 14, 1543-1548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02499.x

[7]   Ahrens, M.E. and Shoemaker, D. (2005) Evolutionary History of Wolbachia Infections in the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 5, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-5-35

[8]   Shoemaker, D.D., Ross, K.G., Keller, L., Vargo, E.L. and Werren, J.H. (2000) Wolbachia Infections in Native and Introduced Populations of Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.). Insect Molecular Biology, 9, 661-673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00233.x

[9]   Tsutsui, N.D., Kauppinen, S.N., Oyafuso, A.F. and Grosberg, R.K. (2003) The Distribution and Evolutionary History of Wolbachia Infection in Native and Introduced Populations of the Invasive Argentine ant Linepithema Humile. Molecular Ecology, 12, 3057-3068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01979.x

[10]   Russel, J.A., Goldman-Huertas, B., Moreau, C.S., Baldo, L., Stahlhut, J.K., Werren, J.H. and Pierce, E.N. (2009) Specialization and Geografic Isolation among Wolbachia Symbionts from Ants and Lycaenid Butterflies. Evolution, 63, 624-640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00579.x

[11]   Baldo, L., Lo, N. and Werren, J.H. (2005) Mosaic Nature of Wolbachia Surface Protein. Journal of Bacteriology, 187, 5406-5418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.187.15.5406-5418.2005

[12]   Banks, W.A., Lofgren, C.S., Jouvenaz, D.P., Stringer, C., Bishop, P.M., Williams, D.F., Wojcik, D.P. and Glances, B.M. (1981) Techniques for Collecting, Rearing and Handling Imported fire Ants. US Department of Agriculture. AAT-S-21, Washington DC, 9 p.

[13]   Ahrens, M.E., Ross, K.G. and Shoemaker, D.D. (2005) Phylogeographic Structure of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta in Its Native South American Range: Roles of the Natural Barriers and Habitat Connectivity. Evolution, 59, 1733-1743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01822.x

[14]   Herbert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L. and de Waard, J.R. (2003) Biological Identification through DNA Barcode. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270, 313-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2218

[15]   Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S. and de Waard, J.R. (2003) Barcoding Animal Life: Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 Divergences among Closely Related Species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270, S96-S99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0025

[16]   Ratnasingham, S. and Hebert, P.D.N. (2007) BOLD: The Barcode of Life System. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 355- 364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01678.x

[17]   Martins, C., Souza, R.F. and Bueno, O.C. (2012) Presence and Distribution of the Endosymbiont Wolbachia among Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Brazil and Its Evolutionary History. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 109, 287-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2012.01.001

[18]   Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: A User-Friendly Biological Sequence Alignment Editor and Analysis Program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, 95-98.

[19]   Valles, S.M. and Porter, S.D. (2003) Identification of Polygyne and Monogyne Fire Ant Colonies (Solenopsis invicta) by Multiplex PCR of Gp-9 Alleles. Insectes Sociaux, 50, 199-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00040-003-0662-8

[20]   Ross, K.G., Krieger, M.J.B. and Shoemaker, D.D. (2003) Alternative Genetic Foundations for a Key Social Polymorphism in Fire Ants. Genetics, 165, 1853-1867.

[21]   Zhou, W., Rousset, F. and O’Neill, S. (1998) Phylogeny and PCR-Based Classification of Wolbachia Strains Using wsp Gene Sequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 265, 509-515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

[22]   Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2007) MEGA 4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) Software Version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 1596-1599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msm092

[23]   Huelsenbeck, J.P. and Ronquist, F. (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Bioinformatics, 17, 754-755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

[24]   Shoemaker, D.D., Ahrens, M., Sheill, L., Mescher, M., Keller, L. and Ross, K.G. (2003) Distribution and Prevalence of Wolbachia Infections in Native Populations of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Entomology, 32, 1329-1336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-32.6.1329

[25]   Bouwma, A.M., Ahrens, M.E., Deheer, C.J. and Shoemaker, D.D. (2006) Distribution and Prevalence of Wolbachia in Introduced Populations of the Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta. Insect Molecular Biology, 15, 89-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00614.x

[26]   Van Borm, S., Wenseleers, T., Billen, J. and Boomsma, J.J. (2003) Cloning and Sequencing of wsp Enconding Gene Fragments Reveals a Diversity of Co-Infecting Wolbachia Strains in Acromyrmex Leafcutter Ants. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 26, 102-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00298-1

 
 
Top