MNSMS  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2014
Immersive 3D Visualization of the Collective Behavior of Particles and Crystal Dislocations Using Virtual Reality Technology
Abstract: In this article, we present a three-dimensional visualization technique that has been developed in order to establish an interactive immersive environment to visualize the particles in granular materials and dislocations in crystals. Simple elementary objects often exhibit complex collective behavior. Understanding of such behaviors and developments of coarse-scale theories, often requires insight into collective behavior that can only be obtained through immersive visualization. By displaying the computational results in a virtual environment with three-dimensional perception, one can immerse inside the model and analyze the intricate and very complex behavior of individual particles and dislocations. We built the stereographic images of the models using OpenGL rendering technique and then combine with the Virtual Reality technology in order to immerse in the three-dimensional model. A head mounted display has been used to allow the user to immerse inside the models and a flock of birds tracking device that allows the movements around and within the immersive environment.
Cite this paper: Panigrahi, S. , Jayaram, S. , Jayaram, U. , Zbib, H. and Mesarovic, S. (2014) Immersive 3D Visualization of the Collective Behavior of Particles and Crystal Dislocations Using Virtual Reality Technology. Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science, 4, 79-93. doi: 10.4236/mnsms.2014.43010.

[1]   Li, H., Daugherty, T. and Biocca, F. (2001) Characteristics of Virtual Experience in Electronic Commerce: A Protocol Analysis. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18, 13-30.

[2]   Wexelblat, A. (1993) Virtual Reality Application and Exploration. Academic Press Professional, Boston.

[3]   Klein, L.R. (2003) Creating Virtual Product Experiences: The Role of Telepresence. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 7, 41-55.

[4]   Steuer, J. (1992) Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42, 73-93.

[5]   Reeves, B. and Nass, C. (1996) The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Televisions, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[6]   Biocca, F. (1997) The Cyborg’s Dilemma: Progressive Embodiment in Virtual Environments. Journal of Computer Mediated-Communication, 3, 0-0.

[7]   Li, H., Daugherty, T. and Biocca, F. (2003) The Role of Virtual Experience in Consumer Learning. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13, 395-408.

[8]   Suh, K.S. and Lee, Y.E. (2005) The Effects of Virtual Reality on Consumer Learning: An Empirical Investigation. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 29, 673-697.

[9]   Jayaram, U. and Repp, R. (2002) Integrated Real-Time Calibration of Electromagnetic Tracking of User Motions for Engineering Applications in Virtual Environments. Journal of Mechanical Design, 124, 623-632.

[10]   Jayaram, U., Jayaram, S., Shaikh, I., Kim, Y. and Palmer, C. (2006) Introducing Quantitative Analysis Methods into Virtual Environments for Real-Time and Continuous Ergonomic Evaluations. Computers in Industry, 57, 283-296.

[11]   Panigrahi, S.R. (2009) Immersive 3D Visualization of Grain Structures and Dislocations in Materials. Masters’ Thesis, Washington State University, Washington DC.

[12]   Johnson, K.L. (1987) Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[13]   Mueth, D.M., Jaeger, H.M. and Nagel, S.R. (1997) Force Distribution in a Granular Medium. Physical Review Letters, 57, 3164.

[14]   Blair, D.L., Mueggenburg, N.W., Marshall, A.H., Jaeger, H.M. and Nagel, S.R. (2001) Force Distributions in Three-Dimensional Granular Assemblies: Effects of Packing Order and Interparticle Friction. Physical Review E, 63, Article ID: 041304.

[15]   Mesarovic, S.D. and Fleck, N.A. (2000) Friction-Less Indentation of Dissimilar Elastic-Plastic Spheres. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 37, 7071-7091.

[16]   Mesarovic, S.D. and Johnson, K.L. (2000) Adhesive Contact of Elastic-Plastic Spheres. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 48, 2009-2033.

[17]   Mesarovic, S.D. and Padbidri, J. (2005) Minimal Kinematic Boundary Conditions for Simulations of Disordered Microstructures. Philosophical Magazine, 85, 65-78.

[18]   Mesarovic, S.D. (2005) Energy, Configurational Forces and Characteristic Lengths Associated with the Continuum Description of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations. International Journal of Plasticity, 21, 1855-1889.

[19]   Radhakrishnan, H. and Mesarovic, S.D. (2009) Adhesive Contact of Elastic Spheres Revisited: Numerical Models and Scaling. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, 465, 2231-2249.

[20]   Zaeem, M.A., Kadiri, H.E., Mesarovic, S.D., Horstemeyer, M.F. and Wang, P.T. (2011) Effect of the Compositional Strain on the Diffusive Interface Thickness and on the Phase Transformation in a Phase-Field Model for Binary Alloys. Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, 32, 302-308.

[21]   Padbidri, J. and Mesarovic, S.D. (2011) Acceleration of DEM Algorithm for Quasistatic Processes. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 86, 816-828.

[22]   Cleary, P.W. and Sawley, M.L. (1999) Three Dimensional Modeling of Industrial Granular Flows. 2nd International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, Melbourne, 6-8 December 1999, 95-100.

[23]   Cundall, P.A. (1971) A Computer Model for Simulating Progressive Large Scale Movements in Blocky Rock Systems. Proceedings of the Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM), France, II-8.

[24]   Kuhn, M.R. and Bagi, K. (2004) Contact Rolling and Deformation in Granular Media. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 41, 5793-5820.

[25]   Schall, P., Cohen, I., Weitz, D.A. and Spaepen, F. (2004) Visualization of Dislocation Dynamics in Colloidal Crystals. Science, 305, 1944-1948.

[26]   Patriarca, M., Kuronen, A. and Kaski, K. (2002) Nucleation and Dynamics of Dislocations in Mismatched Hetero- Structures. Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium, 696, 125-130.

[27]   Ohashi, T.L. (1999) Evaluation and Visualization of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations in Metal Microstructures by Means of Continuum Mechanics Analysis. Journal De Physique, 9, 279-284.

[28]   Zbib, H.M., Rhee, M. and Hirth, J.P. (1998) On Plastic Deformation and the Dynamics of 3D Dislocations. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 40, 113-127.

[29]   Zbib, H.M. and Diaz de la Rubia, T. (2002) A Multiscale Model of Plasticity. International Journal of Plasticity, 18, 1133-1163.

[30]   Zbib, H.M., Overman, C.T., Akasheh, F. and Bahr, D. (2011) Analysis of Plastic Deformation in Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers with Coherent and Incoherent Interfaces. International Journal of Plasticity, 27, 1618-1639.

[31]   Alankar, A., Field, D.P. and Zbib, H.M. (2012) Explicit Incorporation of Cross-Slip in a Dislocation Density-Based Crystal Plasticity Model. Philosophical Magazine, 92, 3084-3100.

[32]   Alankar, A., Mastoracos, I.N., Field, D.P. and Zbib, H.M. (2012) Determination of Dislocation Interaction Strengths Using Discrete Dislocation Dynamics of Curved Dislocations. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, 134, Article ID: 021018.



[35]   Mills, S. and Noyes, J. (1999) Virtual Reality: An Overview of User-Related Design Issues: Revised Paper for Special Issue on Virtual Reality: User Issues in Interacting with Computers, May 1998. Interacting with Computers, 11, 375- 386.

[36]   Pimentel, K. and Teixeira, K. (1994) Virtual Reality: Through the New Looking Glass. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.