Lowell, B.L., Findlay, A. and Stewart, E. (2004) Brain Strain: Optimising Highly Skilled Emigration from Developing Countries. Asylum and Migration Working Paper 3, Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), London. http://www.ippr.org.uk/ecomm/files/brainstrain.pdf
 Winters, L.A. (2002) The Economic Implications of Liberalising Mode 4 Trade. Joint WTO-World Bank Symposium on “The Movement of Natural Persons (Mode 4) under the GATS”, WTO, Geneva, 33 p. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/symp_apr_02_winters_e.doc
 Ratha, D., Mohapatra, S. and Scheja, E. (2011) Impact of Migration on Economic and Social Development. International Organization for Migration Web Site.
 Epstein, G., Heintz, J., Ndikumana, L. and Chang, G. (2010) Employment, Poverty and Economic Development in Madagascar: A Macroeconomic Framework. From International Labour Organization Web Site.
 The Most Widely Used Database on Worldwide Brain Drain Is That of Docquier and Marfouk (2006) Which Was Later Revised to Provide a Gender Breakdown (Docquier, Lowell and Marfouk, 2009) It Was Subsequently Expanded in Docquier, et al. (2011) Which Includes Non-OECD Host Countries and Therefore Captures South-South flows. The First Version of This Database Was Kindly Made Available to the UNCTAD Secretariat by Its Authors.
 Bhagwati, J. and Hamada, K. (1974) The Brain Drain, International Integration of Markets for Professionals and Unemployment: A Theoretical Analysis. Journal of Development Economics, 1, 19-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3878(74)90020-0