AS  Vol.5 No.8 , July 2014
Bioavailability of Chlorpyrifos in Wheat Plants (Triticum aestivun)

Adsorption processes of chlorpyrifos in two Chilean agro soils (Calera: C; San Esteban: SE) in relation with the bioaccumulation in wheat plants (Triticum aestivun) were studied. RP-HPLC method was developed to determine the chlorpyrifos content in soils, roots and seedling tissues. The two soils showed high adsorption capacity (C = 78%, SE = 92%). The values are not in relation with the contents of organic matter (C = 3.9% and SE = 2.0%) and clay (C = 12.7% and SE = 10.1%) determined in the soils. Persistence and mobility of chlorpyrifos in the soils were estimated from halflife values (Csoil = 23 d, SEsoil = 14 d) and the Guss index (Csoil = 0.89, SEsoil = 0.25) respectively. These values are in the range of non-leaching compounds, and suggest that there should be no pollutant in the ground water. Wheat plants grown in both soils incubated with chlorpyrifos bioaccumulate residues in roots and seedling tissues. Root tissues showed the greatest contents (C = 22.3 mg/k. f. wt; SE = 51.8 mg/kg. f. wt.). Germination and growth of wheat young plants were not inhibited for the contents in the tissues. A relation between the levels of chlorpyrifos residues in the soils and the bioaccumulation in wheat tissues was estimated from the BAI parameter. Values showed that the bioaccumulation is dependent on the residues contents in soils. These results suggest that bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants may be a harmful pollutant for mammals if it remains stable at all growth stage of the plant. Further research should be considered to see if bioavailability in forage and/or grain can occur.

Cite this paper: Copaja, S. , Vergara, R. and Bravo, H. (2014) Bioavailability of Chlorpyrifos in Wheat Plants (Triticum aestivun). Agricultural Sciences, 5, 660-667. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.58069.

[1]   Pimentel, D. and Levitan, L. (1996) Pesticides Amounts Applied and Amounts Reaching Pests. Bioscience, 36, 86-91.

[2]   Rao, P.S.C, Mansell, A.S., Baldwin, L.B. and Laurent, M.F. (1983) Pesticides and their Behavior in Soil and Water. Soil Science. Fact Sheer Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida.

[3]   Aktar, M.I., Sengupta, D. and Chowdury, A. (2009) Impact of Pesticides Use in Agriculture: Their Benefits and Hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2, 1-12.

[4]   Arias-Esteves, M., Lopez-Periago, E., Martinez-Caraballe, E., Simal-Gandra, I., Mejuto, J.C. and García-Ries, L. (2008) The Mobility and Degradation of Pesticides in Soils and Pollution of Ground Water Resources. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 123, 247-260.

[5]   Linn, D.M., Carski, I.H., Brusseau, M.L. and Chiang, F.H. (1993) Sorption and Degradation of Pesticides and Organic Chemical in Soil. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 260.

[6]   Guo, L., Jury, W.A., Wagenet, R.J. and Flury, M. (2000). Dependence of Pesticide Degradation on Sorption Nonequilibrium Model and Application to Soil Reactors. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 43, 45-62.

[7]   Chapman, R.A. and Cole, C.M. (1982) Observation on the Influence of Water and Soil pH on the Persistence of Insecticides. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Health, 17, 457-504.

[8]   Milbrath, D.S, Eton, M. and Casida, J.E. (1978) Distribution and Fate in Mammals of the Potent Convulsing and GABA Antagonist t-Butyl-Bicyclophosphste and Its Methyl Analog. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 46, 411-415.

[9]   Darlington, W.A., Partes, R.D. and Ratts, K.W. (1971) Correlation of Cholinesterase Inhibition and Toxicity in Insect and Mammals I Ethylphosphonates. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 18, 542-547.

[10]   Awasthi, M.D. and Prakash, N.B. (1997) Persistence of Chlorpyrifos in Soils under Different Moisture Régimes. Pesticide Science, 50, 1-4.<1::AID-PS549>3.0.CO;2-X

[11]   Geetzin, L.W.E. (1981) Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Soil Influence of Autoclaving Soil Moisture and Temperature. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74, 158-162.

[12]   Chu, X., Fang, H., Pan, X., Wang, X., Shau, M., Feng, B. and Yu, Y. (2008) Degradation of Chlorpyrifos Alone and in Combination with Chlorothalonil and Their Effects on Soil Microbial Populations. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20, 464-469.

[13]   Van Emmerik, T., Angove, M., Johnson, B. and Walls, J. (2007) Sorption of Chlorpyrifos to Selected Minerals and Their Effect of Humic Acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 7527-7533.

[14]   Racke, K.D., Laskowski, D.A. and Schultz, M.R. (1990) Persistance of Chlorpyrifos to Enhanced Biodegradation in Soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38, 1430-1436.

[15]   Zhang, X., Shen, Y., Yu, X. and Liu, X. (2012) Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos and Residue Analysis in Rice, Soil and Water under Paddy Field Conditions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 78, 276-280.

[16]   Sardar, D. and Cole, R.K. (2005) Metabolim of Chlorpyrifos in Relation to Its Effect on the Availability of Some Plant Nutrients in Soil. Chemosphere, 61, 1273-1280.

[17]   Roger, M.R. and String, W.T. (2009) Partitioning of Chlorpyrifos to Soil and Plants in Vegetated Agricultural Drainage Ditches. Chemosphere, 75, 109-114.

[18]   Day, P. (1965) Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis. In: Black, C.A., Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 545-566.

[19]   Sadzawka, M.A., Carrasco, M.A., Grez, R., Mora, M.L., Flores, H. and Neaman, A. (2006) Métodos de Análisis recomendados para los Suelos de Chile. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Serie Actas INIA, No. 34, 145.

[20]   Pignatello, J.J. (1998) Soil Organic Matter as a Nonoporous Sorbent of Organic Pollulants. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 76-77, 445-467.

[21]   Gao, J.P., Maguhn, J., Epitzaner, P. and Kottrup, A. (1998) Sortion of Pesticide in the Sediment of the Tenfolsweiher Pond (Southern Germnay) I. Equilibrium Assessments Effects of Organic Carbon Content and pH. Water Research, 32, 1662-1672.

[22]   Spark, K.M. and Swift, R.S. (2002) Effect of Soil Composition and Dissolved Organic Matter on Pesticide Sorption. Science of the Total Environment, 298, 147-161.

[23]   Abmad, R., Nelson, P.N. and Koodana, S. (2006) The Molecular Composition of Soil Organic Matter as Determined by 13C-NMR and Elemental Analysis and Correlation with Pesticide Sorption. European Journal of Soil Science, 57, 883-893.

[24]   Copaja, S.V., Bravo, H.R. and Muñoz, P. (2012) Adsorption of the Fungicides in Chilean Soils Incubated with Biosolids. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 57, 1091-1094.

[25]   MacNamara, G.M. and Toth, S.J. (1970) Adsorption of Linuron and Malathion by Soil and Clay Minerals. Soil Science, 104, 234-240.

[26]   Coquet, Y. (2003) Sorption of Pesticide Atrazine, Isoproturon and Metamitron in Vadose Zone. Vadose Zone Journal, 2, 40-51.

[27]   Dabus, I.G., Barriuso, E. and Calvet, R. (2001) Sorption of Weak Organic Acids in Soils: Clorfencet, 2,4-D and Salicylic Acids. Chemosphere, 45, 767-774.

[28]   Clausen, L. and Fabricius, I. (2002) Atrazine, Isoproturon, Mecogerop, 2,4-D, and Bentazone Adsortion onto Iron Oxides. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 858-869.

[29]   Giles, C., Smith, D. and Huitson, A. (1974) A General Treatment and Classification of the Solute Adsorption Isotherm I. Theoretical. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 47, 755-765.

[30]   Boivin, A., Cherrier, R., Perrin-Ganier, C. and Schiavon, M. (2004) Time Effect on Bentazone Sorption and Degradation in Soil. Pest Management Science, 60, 809-814.

[31]   Macalady, D.L. and Wolfe, N.L. (1985) Effects of Sediment Sorption on Abiotic Hydrolysis. 1. Organophosphorothioate Esters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 33, 167-173.

[32]   Liang, B., Yang, C.L., Gong, M.B., Zhang, J., Zhu, C.X., Jiang, J.D. and Li, S.P. (2011) Adsorption and Degradation of Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos and Their Main Hydrolyte Metabolites in Paddy Soil from Choahin Lake, China. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 2229-2234.

[33]   Singh, B.K., Walker, A., Morgan, J.A. and Wright, D.J. (2003) Effects of Soil pH on the Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Isolation of a Chlorpyrifos-Depredating Bacterium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 5198-5206.

[34]   Gustafson, D.I. (1989) Groundwater Ubiquity Score: A Simple Method for Assessing Pesticide Leachability. Enviromental Toxicology and Chemistry, 8, 339-357.

[35]   Kabara-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (2000) Trace Elements in Soil and Plants. 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 27.